are developed as the theory of generalized semantic generalization, theory of consolidation of educative units, the concept of knowledge engineering etc.
interrelations of the earlier isolated parts and elements of the whole, cognition of the structure and functions of complicated systems in complex and unity, the transition to reproduction of the whole.
We offer to combine them into a holistic system, so we introduce the concept of
"integrology". Integrology is a branch of scientific knowledge of the essence, reguliarities and integration application.
The object of our attention is the integrative processes within education, thus we narrow the concept: educative integrology researches the integrative processes within the theory of education. To the external its reguliarities we refer dialectical unity of integration and differentiation with the advantage of integrative tendency, growth of opportunities for integration in education, dynamics of integrative factors and uneven integrative processes, stepwise nature of the integration process and so on. Internal reguliarities reflect the educational, epistemological, psychological and social aspects of educative integrology. The subject of educative integrology is defined as the theory of educative integration in all its forms and aspects that allows using not only a variety of reguliarities and means but also the logical connections between them. Methodological function of integrology is provided by approach to explaining the facts studied from the epistemological position that also determines the position of the author and his conceptual system and the choice of research methods and ways of using them.
2.2. Laws of integrology
At the present stage integrative trends in education begin being realized as laws.
We consider the study of integrative processes should be developped in the direction of forming a system of axioms, postulates and laws.
We do not aim to create any new laws of education. The laws formulated below are attempts to identify a significant number of well-known reguliarities some of the most common that are not derived from one another. The system of these laws makes it possible to deduce other laws as their consequences. However, an available system makes it possible to deduce new, unknown reguliaritis of integration as the interaction of existing reguliarities and laws are the source of new knowledge.
Laws of educative integrology logically related to one another make up the system: the first law establishes axiomatic properties (attributes) of the integration, the second postulates the notion of "integration" and its essential features and the third covers dialectically opposite process (differentiation) that provides possibility of integrative processes development.
1. Law of correlation: elements of integration should have properties that ensure their ability to coordinated interaction (correlativity).
This law is axiomatic, it is a result of the generalization of a large number of empirical facts, the laws of formal and philisophical logics. The property of correlation of elements, i.e. their interconditionality, is a necessary condition for their integration. Formally, this law can be proved by contradiction: if elements of integration do not have correlative properties, there can be no question of their combination into any systems, moreover, the more integrative ones.
Educational integrology: methodology, theory…
2. Law of imperativeness: the process is integrative if the following conditions are met: the emergence of new properties as a result of integration; the availability of systematic and structural nature of the integrated object; individual features saving of integration elements; the existence of several stable states of the integrated object.
The law has character of a postulate as it establishes necessary and sufficient conditions for integration and can partly function as the definition of integration. The most important we consider the fact that listed conditions of various combinations (not all at the same time) are conditions of existence of the objects, complexes, different entities and structures. For example, emergence of new properties is characterized for synthesis but, in fact, plays no role in the formation of complexes.
The availability of systemic-structural nature of the integrated object is essential in the formation of complexes and synthetic objects but almost does not play a role in other types of interaction (e.g. interdisciplinary connections). Particularly important condition is the preservation of individual properties of the integrated elements as this condition is not satisfied either in the synthesis, or the formation of complexes and systems. In case of interdisciplinary interactionsl properties of elements, as a rule, are kept but it does not guarantee newly-created object in synthetic and systemic aspects.
Thus, the integration is the only process of elements interaction where consistency of the final result is ensured and the properties of individual elements of integration are kept. The very combination of integration features provides the possibility of existing of several stable states of the integrated object which is especially important in education.
3. Law of complement: integrative processes cause differentiation processes (and vice versa).
As this statement is a direct consequence of the laws of philosophy, it can be considered an axiom but it is very important because taking into consideration of differentiation provides optimization of educational processes on the basis of opposites unity.
From the laws mentioned above a number of consequences are as a result including:
1. Elements of integration must be sufficiently homogeneous to maintain the ability to interaction.
2. Elements of integration must be sufficiently heterogeneous to prevent their synthesis.
3. Elements of integration should have critical (initial) meanings, starting from which their interaction is effective.
4. The result of an integrative process is a system (the integrated system).
5. The functional dependences between the parameters of the integrated system are non-linear.
6. During the forming of an integrative system the element changes qualitatively performing "function of an entrance" into the structure of the system.
7. The critical importance of the integration process growth causes the appearance of an initial process of differentiation.
Yuryi Kozlovskyi, Iryna Kozlovska