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The concept and essence of giftedness

In document MODERN HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN (сторінка 159-168)

Ganna Koval, Doctor of Public Administration, Professor, Head of the Humanities and Social Work Department of the Lviv State the University of Life Safety To the problem of adaptation

Gifted children of junior high school to study

Beginning of schooling is a stressful situation in the life of a child, because it involves the need to adapt to new microsocial conditions. This process is accompanied by various shifts in the functional state and to a large extent affects the psycho-emotional area of health. The success of the child’s ability to socialize, the effectiveness of his or her learning and further social activity depends to a great extent on the welfare of the adaptation period during the admission to school. That is why the issue of junior students having to adapt to the new school environment does not loose its relevance and are constantly in the center of scientific research.

The problem of adapting a child to school was and remains the subject of close attention of many teachers, psychologists, and doctors. In particular, the results of scientific research on the nature of adaptability / disadaptation, the factors of their determination, and the specifics of manifestation contribute to the clarification of certain aspects of it, as is illustrated in the writings of such authors as G. Gandzilevskaya, I.

Dubrovina, I. Zagurskaya, V. Kagan, O. Kulchytska, A. Leskova-Savitskaya, O.

Marinushkina, R. Ovcharova, N. Samokina, A. Furman; The issue of the relationship between the child's psychological preparation and the school's adaptation to education was studied by L. Božovich, L. Wenger, N. Gutkina, V. Davydov, O. Proskura;

Emotional development of children of preschool and junior school age was studied by O. Kononko, O. Kulchytska, V. Mukhina, P. Yakobson; various aspects of the problem of adaptation of gifted children to schooling were reflected in Sh. Amonashvili, O.

Antonova, D. Bogoyavlenskaya, O. Kulchytska, O. Matyushkina, O. Savenkova, V.

Shadrikova, N. Shumakova and others in scientific investigations.

While pointing out the significant contribution of the named scientists to the development of the problem, it should be noted that their creative work is focused on the individual theoretical aspects of the problem. However, at the practical level the issues of the adaptation of gifted children of junior school age to study in modern pedagogical science, remains unresolved

The purpose of the paper is to provide a theoretical substantiation of the process of adaptation to gifted children of elementary school age and to highlight these particular problems and prospects for its improvement.

half of the eighteenth century. Its introduction into scientific circulation is associated with the German physiologist Aubert, who used this term to describe the phenomena of adapting the sensitivity of the organs of sight or hearing, which is expressed in increasing or decreasing sensitivity in response to the action of an adequate stimulus 1.

In scientific sources, the definition of "giftedness" is interpreted as the systemic quality of the mind that develops throughout life and determines the possibility of human achievement of higher results in one or several types of activity compared with other people. Signs of giftedness are advancing intellectual and psychological development, expressed physical data of the individual.

A gifted child is characterized by bright, obvious, sometimes outstanding achievements, or has preconditions for this in one or another kind of activity.

Necessary and relevant in our day is the development of giftedness, as a result of the complex interaction of heredity, natural instincts and social environment, mediated activity of the child. Improving the individual abilities and talent of children, creating conditions for their self-realization is one of the priorities of the New Ukrainian School, which should ensure the scientific content of the educational content in accordance with the opportunities, inclinations, interests and needs of the gifted student, the introduction of new pedagogical technologies aimed at activating cognitive, the creative potential of gifted children, the formation and support of positive motives of students, their involvement in active activities. Nowadays, there is no doubt that the realization of the above-mentioned problem is only possible if child’s adaption period at school is non-traumatic.

The scientific concept "adaptation" (translated from the Latin adapto – adaptation) is one of the keys in the study of a living organism, since the mechanisms of adaptation developed as a result of long evolution, it provides the possibility of an organism's existence in a changing environment. Given the purpose of this article, it is important to focus on the peculiarities of the adaptation process for junior pupils, since joining a school is a turning point in every child's life, due to the need to adapt to the conditions and requirements of the new environment. Obtaining a new status of a student, provides both, new rights and responsibilities of the child, which is included in the new forms of activity, is mastering new types of relationships with peers and adults. It is precisely in the elementary school that the foundations of the formation of basic educational establishments are laid, which in the future determine the child's success in school education, the possibilities of its personal self-realization in the school environment, and in the whole system of relations of the child with the surrounding world and on his own 2. And, therefore, in order for the child to “not to get lost" in the new conditions of life, it is essential that this process proceeds as successfully as possible, in order not to lose his potential of giftedness. In doing so, special attention should be paid to the following aspects of adaptation of the child to

1 Lukashevych M. P. (1998). Sotsializatsiya, vykhovni mekhanizmy ta tekhnolohiyi [Socialization, educational mechanisms and technologies]. K.: – 85 p.

2 Kryvchykova O. (2008). Psykhomotorniy stan yak faktor adaptatsiyi uchniv pochatkovykh klasiv do umov navchannya v shkoli. [Psychomotor condition as a factor of adaptation of elementary school students to school conditions]. Fizychne vykhovannya, sport y kulʹtura zdorov'ya u suchasnosty suspilʹstvi, 2, 162-164.

Ganna Koval,

school education, such as physiological, psychological and social, which are largely interdependent and correlated with each other. Thus, in particular, physiological adaptation is associated with the peculiarities of the physiological reactions of the organism, which underlie its adaptation to the new conditions of life. The level of its formation will depend on the level of efficiency of the first-graders, as well as his ability to cope with mental and physical activity in school. Taking into account the physiological aspects of adaptation makes it possible to manage the learning process, promotes teacher’s understanding of the possibility of avoiding excessive intensification of educational work, requires such a construction of a pedagogical process in order not to endanger the health of the child.

The psychological aspects of the first-graders' adaptation are associated with the adoption to the new position in life and the transition to a new educational type of activit, accompanied by such changes in the emotional sphere of the child as the growth of internal tension and level of anxiety, impulsive manifestations of interaction with adults, etc. The process of interaction between yesterday's preschooler and his new school environment is to seek and use adequate means and means to meet such basic needs as physiological (food, sleep, rest, etc.), the need for security, acceptance and love, recognition and respect, self-expression and self- affirmation. The phenomenon of psychological adaptation involves the teacher's consideration of its components, such as the mental, motivational and emotional and volitional readiness of the child to study at school. As the level of students’

development determines the success of not only academic achievement, but also the whole process of its socialization. Thus, in particular, the mental readiness of children to school is not limited to mastering a certain amount of knowledge about the environment, but includes thoughtful actions and operations; motivational readiness is characterized by the presence of a child's desire to learn, and emotionally-volitional determines the ability of a junior students to regulate their behavior in rather difficult situations associated with tensions, feelings. In the context of the above, we note that the prominent psychologist, a recognized specialist in the field of child psychology D. El'konin especially emphasized the importance of the child's psychological readiness to study at school and well-meaning forms and methods of careful preparation for this new and crucial phase in his or her life. This should fully comply age features of the child, emphasizing that arbitrary behavior emerges in the role- playing collective game of children, which enables them to rise to a higher level of development 3.

The degree of formation of the physiological and psychological adaptation of the child to school education will in a certain way determine the specificity of the process of its social adaptation, which is considered by scientists as an integrative indicator of the child's condition, reflecting its ability to adequately perceive the surrounding reality, determines its attitude towards people, their actions, nature communication and learning, as well as the ability to work, relax and regulate behavior in accordance with the expectations of others. Under these conditions, the problem of social

3 Ovcharova R. V. (2001). Tekhnologii prakticheskogo psikhologa [Technologies of a practicing psychologists]. M.: – pp. 304–314.

To the problem of adaptation…

adaptation of younger schoolchildren and the preservation of their mental health is very important in our society 4.

The process of adapting to school life and its conditions is complicated. Some children pass it easily without mental injuries, manifestations of deviations in behavior and difficulties in learning, while others have difficulties, resulting in the problem of maladaptation, which is interpreted by scientists and practitioners as the formation of inadequate mechanisms for adapting a child to new environmental conditions, which is usually accompanied by violations of norms of behavior, difficulty in learning, increased level of anxiety, violation of personal development.5. 2. The role of the New Ukrainian School in the prevention of child maladaptation

School disadaptation is characterized by a loss of academic motivation, accompanied by a decrease in interest in learning up to reluctance to attend school, poor performance, conflicts in communication with teachers and peers, predisposition to deviant behavior, low or overestimating self-esteem, and the dominance of negative emotional stress.

Unfortunately, the realities of today show an increase in the number of primary school students who are in a state of maladaptation, which scientists, teachers and parents associate not only with the problem of child health or the success of its education, but also with the socio-psychological occurrence of a child in school life, in the team of the class, in the system "teacher-student", "student-student". It is far from the exception that the category of disadapted younger pupils is replenished by gifted students.

Successful adaptation to school life, in the opinion of the prominent American psychologist Alice Paul Torrens, who is among the scientists deservedly called "the father of modern theory of creativity," depends on the level of formation of the basic preconditions for educational activity 6, the special readiness of a child to school – the level of her ability to read, write and count. In this regard, we consider it worthwhile to point out that the program and methods of training that existed for a long time in the system of native primary education were calculated for a child who did not receive special training for the school 7, as a result of which gifted children often find themselves in a situation of dissatisfaction with their own needs, slowing down the development of their existing assets while the teacher worked in the general, did not

4Gutkina N. I. (2000). Psikhologicheskaya gotovnost' k shkole [Psychological readiness for school].

M.: Akademicheskiy Proyekt. − 184 p.

5 Kochergova S. A. (2011). Psikhokorrektsiya i profilaktika dezadaptatsii mladshikh shkol'nikov [Psycho-Correction and Prevention of Disadaptation in Junior School-Children]. Elektronnyy zhurnal «Psikhologicheskaya nauka v obrazovanii», 1, 1-15. Retrieved from:

http://psyedu.ru/files/articles/2335/pdf_version.pdf

6 Torrens Y. P. Test kreativnosti. Diagnostika tvorcheskogo myshleniya [The test of creativity.

Diagnosis of creative thinking]. Retrieved from: http://psycabi.net/testy/577-test-kreativnosti- torrensa-diagnostika-tvorcheskogo-myshleniya.

7 Markova A. K. (1990). Formirovaniye motivatsii ucheniya [Formation of learning motivation].

M.: – 96 p.

Ganna Koval,

predict the "trajectory" of each child's development, taking into account her natural instincts and abilities.

Implementation into the educational practice of the conceptual foundations of the New Ukrainian School, where child-centered and personally oriented approaches are key to the organization of the educational process in the school, where mandatory pre-school education is a priority – it is our belief that in today's conditions not the only and not so one of the factors that will contribute to the successful prevention of child maladaptation to school, and above all an indicator of creating a special enabling environment for the development of all of its creative abilities and capabilities.

Thus, in order to establish successful adaptation of junior pupils to study, in work with first-graders, it is necessary to take into account the following:

- the formation of psychological readiness for the school, which involves the combination of playing, productive, educational and other activities, that should be carried out taking into account the age and individual psychological characteristics of the child, which manifests themselves at the level of learning, in the pace of learning knowledge, the child's attitude to intellectual activity, peculiarities his or her emotional area and volitional regulation of her own behavior;

- to achieve effective teaching of junior pupils, a positive emotional attitude towards the knowledge and new responsibilities is necessary;

- the management of the activities of first-grade students should be carried out, using widely (especially in the I semester) methods of preschool education with the partial gradual application of school methods, which will link non-traumatic transition from kindergarten to school, "softer" adaptation to school education;

- in pedagogical work with first-graders it is important to maintain continuity not only in methods of work, but also in the styles of pedagogical communication;

- to adhere to the sequence (not contradictory) in the application of school methods of work and in the formation of a team of children of the first classes and the organization of their interpersonal communication;

- purposefully to form skills of role and interpersonal communication of children as an important condition for preparation for change of the lead activity;

- to make maximum use of educational opportunities for joint activities of junior pupils 8.

The conducted analysis of the essence of adaptation of junior schoolchildren showed that this problem is interdisciplinary and requires a comprehensive solution, envisages the establishment of close cooperation between educators of pre-school educational institutions, primary school teachers, specialists in social-psychological service of the school (practical psychologists and social educators) and, of course, the parents'. Each of these subjects of interaction with the child, having its own specific

8 Andriychuk S. V. (2014). Nastupnistʹ u profilaktytsi sotsialʹnoyi dezadaptatsiyi starshykh doshkilʹnykiv i molodshykh shkolyariv [Continuity in professional societal disadaptation of older preschooler students and younger school age students]: avtoref. dys. na zdobuttya nauk. stupenya kand. ped. nauk: spets. 13.00.05 «Sotsialʹna pedahohika». Kyiv, p. 26.

To the problem of adaptation…

influence on it which should create conditions for successful adaptation of the child to its new social status of being a student. They should help preventing the manifestations of school maladaptation, which may arise at the initial stage of education and to relate with the impact of both external, social factors and individual psychological, which will ultimately help to timely identify the causes that can provoke the emergence of school maladaptation, as well as effective organizations to overcome it. Given the special attention which is provided in the process of psychological and pedagogical support for the adaptation of first-graders to study in specially organized educational work with parents of schoolchildren, which should be deprived of any formalism, must be carried out systematically. This requirement is based on a completely objective reason, since the formation of the younger generation in Ukraine is taking place against the backdrop of weakening the educational role of the family institution, increasing the number of dysfunctional families and a large-scale labor migration. These are causing the emergence of a new social phenomenon such as distant families of migrant workers, contributed to the re- accentuation of values of parents and children, the formation of deformations in the process of socialization of children. Among the important causes of school maladaptation, the researchers described in the article the problem is called unfavorable family socialization of children, caused by the mistakes of parents in education (ignoring the adult individual peculiarities of the child, permissiveness, the absence of restrictions and norms, the dominant hyperprotection, accompanied by full control of the child's actions as well as the restriction of the child's environment family circle, negative assessments of creative efforts of the child, etc.) 9. And, consequently, understanding the process of school maladaptation requires knowledge of the social situation of development and life of the junior students, taking into account the factors that act as factors of provocation, additional deepening or deterrence of the school maladaptation process.

Conclusion

Each child is unique, endowed by nature with unique abilities, talents and opportunities. The mission of the New Ukrainian School is to help uncover and develop these abilities and talents. One of the first steps in this responsible way should be to create favorable conditions for effective adaptation of the child to school, a timely detection and elimination of causes that provoke the formation of school maladaptation, which will successfully reveal the potential of each individual.

Further research needs a problem of the influence of the type of pedagogical interaction on the success of adaptation of children of elementary school age to studying.

Abstract

The article analyzes the concepts of «adaptation» and «disadaptation»; Various views of scholars on the problem of the interpretation of these concepts are

9 Lazarenko K. P. (2016). Diahnostyka shkilʹnoyi adaptatsiyi uchniv pershoho klasu spetsializovanoho navchalʹnoho zakladu [Diagnostics of school adaptation of first grade students of a specialized educational institution]. Medychnyy forum: naukovo-periodychne vydannya. – Lʹviv:

Lʹvivsʹka medychna spilʹnota, 8, 77-79.

Ganna Koval,

considered; Areas of adaptation are outlined and characterized; suggested additional methods to overcome difficulties of adaptation of junior schoolchildren.

Key words: gifted children, learning process, school age, adaptation, disadaptation, problems, stress situation.

Literature

1. Andriychuk S. V. (2014). Nastupnistʹ u profilaktytsi sotsialʹnoyi dezadaptatsiyi starshykh doshkilʹnykiv i molodshykh shkolyariv [Continuity in professional societal disadaptation of older preschooler students and younger school age students]: avtoref. dys. na zdobuttya nauk. stupenya kand. ped. nauk: spets.

13.00.05 «Sotsialʹna pedahohika». Kyiv, p. 26.

2. Gutkina N. I. (2000). Psikhologicheskaya gotovnost' k shkole [Psychological readiness for school]. M.: Akademicheskiy Proyekt. − 184 p.

3. Dzyubko L.V. (1999). Fenomen ranney shkol'noy dezadaptatsii glazami uchitelya i roditelya [The phenomenon of early school maladjustment through the eyes of a teacher and parent]. Visnyk Kharkivsʹkoho derzhavnoho universytetu № 439.

Materialy III Kharkivsʹkykh Mizhnarodnykh psykholohichnykh chytanʹ

«Osobystistʹ i transformatsiyni protsesy v suspilʹstvi. Psykholoho-pedahohichni problemy suchasnoyi osvity, 3, 37-40.

4. Kryvchykova O. (2008). Psykhomotorniy stan yak faktor adaptatsiyi uchniv pochatkovykh klasiv do umov navchannya v shkoli. [Psychomotor condition as a factor of adaptation of elementary school students to school conditions]. Fizychne vykhovannya, sport y kulʹtura zdorov'ya u suchasnosty suspilʹstvi, 2, 162-164.

5. Kochergova S. A. (2011). Psikhokorrektsiya i profilaktika dezadaptatsii mladshikh shkol'nikov [Psycho-Correction and Prevention of Disadaptation in Junior School- Children]. Elektronnyy zhurnal «Psikhologicheskaya nauka v obrazovanii», 1, 1- 15. Retrieved from: http://psyedu.ru/files/articles/2335/pdf_version.pdf

6. Lazarenko K. P. (2016). Diahnostyka shkilʹnoyi adaptatsiyi uchniv pershoho klasu spetsializovanoho navchalʹnoho zakladu [Diagnostics of school adaptation of first grade students of a specialized educational institution]. Medychnyy forum:

naukovo-periodychne vydannya. – Lʹviv: Lʹvivsʹka medychna spilʹnota, 8, 77-79.

7. Lukashevych M. P. (1998). Sotsializatsiya, vykhovni mekhanizmy ta tekhnolohiyi [Socialization, educational mechanisms and technologies]. K.: – 85 p.

8. Markova A. K. (1990). Formirovaniye motivatsii ucheniya [Formation of learning motivation]. M.: – 96 p.

9. Ovcharova R. V. (2001). Tekhnologii prakticheskogo psikhologa [Technologies of a practicing psychologists]. M.: – pp. 304–314.

10. Torrens Y. P. Test kreativnosti. Diagnostika tvorcheskogo myshleniya [The test of creativity. Diagnosis of creative thinking]. Retrieved from:

http://psycabi.net/testy/577-test-kreativnosti-torrensa-diagnostika-tvorcheskogo- myshleniya.

To the problem of adaptation…

In document MODERN HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN (сторінка 159-168)