It should be noted that in the Western European countries, the main requirement for the level of development of this competence was focused on the qualities of the teacher, such as the ability to independently find ways to solve complex tasks, independently to acquire new knowledge, skills, skills, to have a positive self-image;
ability to communicate harmoniously with students, ability to comfortably work in a team. Experts from the European Union countries have defined the teacher's pedagogical competence primarily as an "ability to apply knowledge and skills"1 that ensures the active use of learning achievements in new situations.
Most of the European countries today have a thorough discussion on how to equip the ZVO teacher with the necessary skills and knowledge to ensure that his or her professional and pedagogical competence is adequate and appropriate. That is why they believe that in this process it is important to understand the concept of this competence in pedagogical science and practice. It was necessary to determine how it needed to be developed so that it could become a necessary criterion for working in the ZVO. For this purpose, it was important to take into account, first of all, the pedagogical abilities of the teacher of ZVO, his individual-psychological features, the level of application of the acquired pedagogical experience, etc2.
Foreign scientists such as J. Winterton, F. Delamar-LeDeist, E. Stringfellow, J.
Raven, L. Holm, and D. McClelland have examined the role of teachers in higher education and the level of professional and pedagogical competence required.
E. Corvette rightly points out that among the basic competences of teachers, professional and pedagogical competence is the most important because it is directly related to the performance of their professional duties.
To this end, in 2005 the European Parliament was made public recommendations for the definition of the main competences, including vocational palagogna that will allow a person to recognize and use opportunities for self-development, determining goals and strategies for quality education and, respectively, and ways of learning3. This competence is determined by sformovat skills of the teacher to plan, organize activities, manage its progress, to analyze and predict the results of their professional activity, to assess the risks and own resources. The level of development of the specified competencies should occur in the ability of the teacher to relate one's own creative abilities with the possibility of its detection at a certain professional level.
It should be noted that the basis of European approaches to professional and pedagogical competence of teachers of the WMD was based on the so-called
1 Key Competencies. A developing concept in general compulsory education. Eurydice. The information network on education in Europe, 2002. – 28 p.
2Chickering Arthur W., Gamson Zelda F. Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin. – 1987. – vol. 39. – №7. – P. 3-7.
3Recommendation of the European parlament and of the Council on key competences for lifelong learning // communities of the European communities. Brussels, 10.11.2005. – [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: www.jows. pl/sites/default/files/KE_European%20Indicator.
Myroslav Kryshtanovych, Michał Gołoś
Dublin model universal description of competencies (Dublin descriptors):
knowledge and understanding; applying knowledge and understanding; formulation of the judgements; communication; desire and ability to improve their skills.
Thus, in accordance with the European system of qualifications of modern teacher should:
- to use specialized knowledge for critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas at the very cutting edge of the corresponding area to expand or rethink existing knowledge and professional practice within a specific area or at the junction regions;
- to be able to explore, develop, implement and adapt projects that lead to produce new knowledge and new solutions;
- demonstrate substantial leadership, innovation and autonomy in work and training activities in new contexts that require solving problems that arise from many interconnected factors;
- demonstrate the ability to maintain sustained interest in the development of new ideas or processes and a high level understanding of learning processes;
- authoritative to communicate within a critical dialogue with equal status experts;
- to study and reflect on social norms and relationships and to be a leader in their changing;
- critically analyze, evaluate, synthesize new and complex ideas and strategic decision making based on these processes;
- demonstrate experience operating interaction with the ability of making strategic decisions in a complex environment.
The main question that was rosv Azubalis in this direction − what are the main elements in the activities of teachers needs to be performed to meet the specified educational requirement to work in call and demonstrate professional and pedagogical competence adequately.
Noteworthy that criteria for the development of professionally-pedagogical competence of the teacher is needed to work in the secondary cooling zone was determined by the following components: motivational value, which is manifested through a set of motives and needs, which motivate the teacher to develop the necessary professional and pedagogical competence; cognitive, which is characterized by a system of acquired knowledge, which should have the teacher ZVO; practical, which is supported by the implementation generated relevant professional skills.
Modern requirements for the pedagogical staff of ZVO in France require a more concentrated approach to the development of their professional and pedagogical competence, this is primarily the ability to use discussions in the educational process, the implementation of activities and exercises of communicative and dialogical nature and experimental exercises, the ability to analyze and solve unplanned situations. To do this, the teacher should make extensive use of "problematic methods", methods of demonstrating pedagogical videos, modeling, micro-teaching, role-playing games, project presentations, etc4.
4 Lashchykhina V.P. Rozvytok systemy pidhotovky pedahohichnykh kadriv u Frantsiyi (druha polovyna KHKH – pochatok KHKHI stolittya) : dys. kand. ped. nauk: 13.00.01 / Lashchykhina Vitalina Petrivna;
Kyyivsʹkyy nats. linhvistychnyy un-t, Minosvity i nauky Ukrayiny. – K., 2009. – 274 s.
Formation of professional and pedagogical
The system of improving the professional and pedagogical competence of working teachers of HSE in Germany includes advanced training courses at higher education institutions, seminars, conferences5. There are a system of requirements for conducting them: classes should be short-term; they should be held near the place of residence and work of teachers; they should address problems that are particularly relevant to the university where the teacher works; the content of the classes should be tailored to the wishes of the trainees themselves and help them to solve specific problems and difficulties that occur in their practical activities.
Each of the above forms of work has its own peculiarities and advantages. For example, councils in German universities, as a form of professional development and pedagogical competence, are held when there is a need to familiarize teachers with state documents in the field of education, directives on changes in curricula, discuss new learning technologies Visits to the staff of the teaching staff when there is a need to evaluate innovations in the field of teaching methodology or to provide specific assistance in a problem or conflict situation the teacher.
In the process of developing the professional and pedagogical competence of university professors in Germany, the universally recognized requirements for the level of their education are adherence to the trend of interdisciplinarity and maximum harmonization of normative and variational courses. This is evidenced by the practice of organizing work to improve their qualifications, in particular at the Hamburg, Heidelberg, Goettingen, Osnabruck and Ruhr Universities. In each of these higher education institutions, depending on local conditions, scientific and social factors, determine the level of necessary educational training of these teachers, argue the feasibility of introducing normative and variational courses for their retraining, integrated programs, promising teaching methods in postgraduate studies. For this purpose the following innovative teaching methods are used: role / business games, project method, trainings, “mental maps”, case method, brainstorming, situation modeling, presentations and more. All of them have a positive impact on raising the level of professional and pedagogical competence of teachers for work in the ZVO.
The analysis of the specialized literature shows that the development of professional and pedagogical competence of university professors in Germany is due to the creation in the respective higher educational institutions of appropriate organizational and pedagogical conditions that allow to effectively achieve this goal, taking into account the specifics and peculiarities of their professional activity.
The system of professional retraining of university teachers based on the formation of their professional and pedagogical competence in such European countries as Poland, Lithuania, Hungary was carried out on the basis of postgraduate technologies with multidisciplinary networks of additional training, functioning and on the basis of specially designated educational institutions, as well as refresher training directly on-site with online access through well-defined curricula. According to Polish scientists, the principles of continuity, unity and differentiation, replacement of narrow-profile broad-based training, comprehensive development in a wide range of education, flexibility, scientific and economic education are the main ones in the
5 Die besten Hochschulen in Deutschland // Stern. 2001. – Heft 17. – S. 57-68.
Myroslav Kryshtanovych, Michał Gołoś
process of developing the professional-pedagogical competence of university professors.
The Strategy for the Development of Education of Poland for 2007-2013 laid down the basic principles and tendencies of forming the professional and pedagogical competence of teachers of higher education institutions, which was grounded in particular with the development of a flexible educational system capable of adapting to changes related to the progress in science, new technologies and globalization, as well as the positive changes in the international educational process that have been associated with the implementation of a transparent system of professional qualifications; creating a unified system for recognition of teachers' professional qualifications6.
Thus, the professional and pedagogical competence of the teacher of ZVO determined the goals in the process of his retraining from the whole course of disciplines necessary for the ability to build the educational process vividly, emotionally, interestingly; select the content and appropriate equipment for training;
teaching material is accessible, clearly, clearly, convincingly; to develop the necessary didactic material for training with students.
The analysis of the leading European experience in the development of professional and pedagogical competence of teachers in the field of higher education showed that:
a clear orientation of the state policy of the leading European countries on the development of the necessary potential of the teachers of the HEA;
legal and regulatory framework to support and integrate their professional development;
sound guidelines and results of the programs of their professional retraining for work in the HEA.
2. Formation and development of professional and pedagogical competence of