specialists in social work.
Organization of appropriate educational linguistic environment in institutions of higher education and obtaining of bachelor’s degree in social work focusing on a high level of professional language competence will facilitate successful implementation of specialists’ professional expertise, professional self-education and development of the competence of speech among general population.
1. The essence of professional linguistic competence in future social work professionals
Todayattention of the scientific community to the problem of competence is due, above all, to the reorientation of higher education towards formation of basic competencies, as a reflection of unanimity of knowledge, skills and abilities of future specialists. This has led to intensification of scientific research and study of competence as a subject matter. Retrospective analysis of scientific works shows that problems of formation of the language and speech competence of future specialists in different spheres are considered in the works of such domestic researchers as:K.
Balabanova, N. Bidyuk, G. Bogin, V. Borisenko, A. Vardanyan, T. Gannichenko,T.
Gorokhovskaya, A. Zagnitko, L. Zosimova, K. Klimova, O. Kovalenko, O. Kovtun, O. Kopus, M. Kravets, K. Kruty, M. Orap, Y. Paskevskaya, O. Semenogh,N. Skibun, I. Sokolova, L. Sikorskaya, N. Totka, G. Shelehova and others.
N. Babich, L. Baranovsky, A. Belyaev, L. Holovat, N. Golub, N. Kostritsa, M.
Kryshtanovych, L. Luchkina, L. Matsko, L. Mamchur, V. Momot, A. Nikitina, T.
Okunevich, L. Palamar, M. Pentilyuk, E. Polataj, L. Romanova, L. Strugants, L.
Sushentseva, N. Totskaya. O. Shtepa, S. Shumovetsky and others offer pedagogical technologies for formation of the culture of professional speech for students of higher educationinstitutions.
In dissertation papers by L. Baranovsky, G. Beregovoy, O. Bugaichuk, A.
Vardanyan, L. Vasetsky, L. Holovatoy, G. Horin, O. Gridzhuk, N. Kostritsy, K.
Likhacheva, L. Luchkina, T. Okunevich, N. Totskaya and others the main issues of formation of professional competence competence of higher education students are revealed and corresponding innovative educational models, methods and technologies are offered. However, unfortunately, today there is no unified model or technology for the formation of professional language competence of students of humanitarian specialties and pedagogical conditions of their formation have not been determined.
Current social economic and political state in the country, prolonged military operations in the East of Ukraine have complicated life of Ukrainian citizens. It is the social life today that needs new progressive approaches to the development of the social sphere and the improvement of professional training of specialists in social work.
Social work specialist is a person who in accordance with the requirements of higher education standards must possess a set of personal qualities and professional competencies to perform a specific type of social activity. S/he must have a high level of professional language competence, including knowledge of language norms, as well as knowledge of sciences that investigate speech and behavioral patterns.
Educational process and direct formation of professional and linguistic competencies of Bachelor students majoring in social work are based on relevant qualification requirements and educational programs.
Language education of future specialists in social work is intended to accomplish the following main tasks: to form student’s ability and skills to freely express thoughts in all kinds of speech activities (speaking, listening, reading, writing) and in various spheres of communication (personal, professional, public, educational); to master culture of speech; to develop professional language competence of a person.
The term “linguistic competence” was introduced by an American scientist Noam Khomsky who interpreted linguistic competence as perfect knowledge of the speaker-listener of one’snative language.
In our opinion, linguistic competence is a purposeful process of mastering fundamentals of language science, theoretical (phonetic, grammatical, lexical) knowledge, practical skills in analyzing the phenomena and facts of speech, and skills of free operation with them.
The Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” provides the definition of competence as a “dynamic combination of knowledge, skills, ways of thinking, views, values, other personal qualities which determine the ability of a person to successfully socialize, carry out professional and / or further educational activities.”
The scientist O. Gridzhuk understands competence as an integral qualitative characteristic of student’spersonality, basis of which consists of knowledge, understanding, awareness, experience of social and professional activity; as student’s ability to work efficiently, approach non-standard solutions to problems and situations arising in various spheres of life. We share the author’s opinion that linguistic and communicative competence is ability to use norms of the Ukrainian literary language in the field of scientific and professional activities, appropriate level of communicative skills, ability to analyze one’s own and foreign expressions, knowledge of professional discourse, value attitude to language.
In “Great Explanatory Dictionary of Modern Ukrainian Language”, ed. by V.
Buzel’s,the notion of competence is defined as “informativeness, awareness, credibility”, “sufficient knowledge in a particular field”, “knowledge, wisdom”,
“availability of certain powers”, competence as “good knowledge” and “authority of a particular organization or person” [13, 632].
We fully share the opinion of the scientist L. Solovey that the term “professional competence” means concrete results of the educational process, the level of professional knowledge and skills and their effective use, professional experience, the system of value orientations of a specialist, his/her attitude towards people and work, ability to self-education and acquisition of new knowledge, effective possession of various ways to solve problematic and cognitive tasks, etc.
Structural components of linguistic competence are as follows: lexical competence (presupposes availability of a certain amount of words within the limits of professional development and their appropriate use); phonetic competence (involves correct pronunciation of all sounds and possession of intonational means of expressiveness of speech (tempo, timbre, voice, logical emphasis, etc.); grammatical
Theorety and practice of formation of professional…
competence (includes formation of grammatically correct speech in practical setting of a specialist), diamonological competence (involves attention to development of dialogical and monolithic speech); communicative competence (aimed at development of speech communication, speech etiquette and ethics, norms of communication).
Summarizing the works of the aforementioned authors, we can formulate the following definition: “Language competence is comprehension and mastering of generally accepted language norms and their adequate application in professional activities.”
Thus, scientist A. Bogush, under language competence, understands ability to adequately and appropriately use language in specific situations (to express their thoughts, desires, intentions, requests, etc.), to use both linguistic,extralinguistic (mimicry, gestures, movements) and intonation means of expressiveness of speech.
A. Vardanyan defines professional language competence as a quality of a personality which “integrates personal communicative qualities, knowledge of a languagesystem, possession of linguistic concepts and means, culture of communication in both social life and professional sphere, awareness of personal needs, values orientations and motives of communication and development.
Speech competence involves continuous improvement of communicative skills in main types of speech activity – listening, speaking, reading and writing; ability to plan their speech and non-speech behavior, ability to apply stylistic diversity of one’s mother tongue.
We also fully share the opinion of Kryshtanovich M. that teacher’s professional and pedagogical competence is a complex combining professional knowledge, skills, readiness for action, as well as a whole range of professionally important personal qualities (creativity, mobility, communicability, tolerance, balance, responsiveness, benevolence, desire for self-knowledge, self-development, self-realization, self- reflection, and others).
Summarizing scientific interpretations of key terms of the research, we understand the professional competence of a social work specialist as his/her ability to use language norms efficiently and effectively to achieve goals and objectives defined according to specific professional and communicative situations.
Language competence characterizes possession or lack of the norms of speech genres, and speech competence refers to norms of verbal and nonverbal communication. Language and speech competence correlates in the same way as language and speech – language as a sign system, and speech is a way of using a specified system.
Consequently, linguistic competence is a prerequisite for establishment of speech competence, and speech competence is determined by a subject entity which contains knowledgeof language and speech. Speech competence is a broader entity, which also contains language competence. Speech competence is the basis for formation of communicative competence. Means of its formation are speech skills.
The content of professional linguistic competence is the following: knowledge of accuracy, adequacy, correct use of linguistic means, knowledge of peculiarities for
using linguistic means, depending on the type, style of speech, knowledge of the features of figurative and expressive language means.
To achieve the professional speech competence of the bachelors majoring in social work, the following main tasks have been identified:
to promote mastering of categories and units of language, functions, comprehension of laws and norms of its functioning, scientific knowledge about peculiarities and specifics of the design of professional speech of a future specialist;
to teach students to solve complex professional and communicative speech problemsduring educational processfor them toact professionally in non-standard situations;
to form personal and professional qualities through active and targeted influence on motivational aspects of their educational activities, to raise moral readiness of graduates to work in the social sphere;
to develop cognitive, scientific and personal interests in a professional field they chose, to promote self-education and self-improvement;
The analysis of content has allowed us to identify another significant problem – presence of certain disadvantages in the content of current educational programs, manuals and textbooks, such as:
the content of the discipline “Business Ukrainian language” was more in line with the content of the discipline “Business”;
more attention is paid to peculiarities of the official-business style of the Ukrainian language; at the same time, other, not less important language styles, including scientific, colloquial were left out of attention;
formation of written languageskills and literacy improvement dominated; the basis of the course constitute spelling practice;
features of oral speech were given insufficient attention;
excessive attention was paid to processing of business papers that had a reproductive character and did not contribute to formation of linguistic individuality of future specialists;
specifics of the future professional context have not always been taken into account.
Program material, exercises offered in the educational-methodical literature, were calculated for all students of ahigher education institution without taking into account specific characteristics of a particular industry.
Textbooks and manuals on“The Business Ukrainian Language” focused on students of technical specialties, did not properly form professional language competencies of other future specialists. Although in most of the manuals, first of all, such as: “The Official Business and Scientific Style of the Ukrainian Language” (by N. Botvin), “Ukrainian Business Speech: Professional and Unprofessional Communication” (by A. Zagnitko, I. Danylyuk), “Modern Ukrainian Business Language for Professional Purpose” (byM. Zubkov), “Ukrainian Language for Professional Orientation” (byY. Chornenky), “The Ukrainian Language of Professional Communication” (by Z. Matsyuk, N. Stankevich.),“Culture of the Professional Language” (by L.Matsko), etc., educational information about the styles
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of the contemporary Ukrainian literary language, classification of business papers, business cards were offered, but in the practical block a set of tasks for students to develop language, speech and communication skills and skills important for their future professional language competence were insufficient.
Speech competence is the result of experience of communication between people because it is formed in conditions of direct interaction. The experience of professional speech communication is acquired in the process of not only direct, but also indirect interaction between participants in the educational process, when a higher education student gets information about the nature of language and communicative situations, peculiarities of interpersonal interaction and the means of their solutions. In the process of speech professional competenceformation, the bachelor of social work mastered the means of analyzing language and communicative situations in verbal and visual forms. Components of professional speech ofa social work specialist are: professional knowledge; high general culture of a specialist, and formed professional competence. The main functions of professional speech competence are:
cognitive function (reflection) of professional speech competence is closely related to the role of speech in implementation of higher mental functions of a person, especially through thinking;
informative function (message) of professional language competence is related to the transfer and assignment of information (knowledge acquisition, mastery of skills and abilities) in the educational process and creation of favorable environment for success of the pedagogical process;
communicative function of professional linguistic competence is transfer of information, exchange of opinions;
stimulating (motivational) function of professional language competence refers to value-oriented attitude to the profession and manifests itself in speech behavior.
All these functions in the real educational process are interconnected and can derive from each other.
Specific principles of teaching Ukrainian professional languageplays an important role in the process of preparing bachelors of social work. They enable building a high-quality and effective system of traditional and innovative methods, techniques, tools and forms of organization of training and self-study for students of the Ukrainian business language for professional purposes.
Specific principles of learning the Ukrainian language are:
principle of studying the Ukrainian language as a dynamic system;
principle of teaching the Ukrainian language on the basis of knowledge about psychological regularities of language functioning in the communicative space;
principle of connection between all linguistic disciplines;
principle of purposeful systematic replenishment of active Ukrainian vocabulary of future specialists in social work with the terms of modern linguistic branches;
principle of active communicative, professional orientation of Ukrainian language learning;
principle of stylistically marked study of language phenomena;
principle of differentiated teaching of the Ukrainian language;
principle of dialoguization of Ukrainian language training.
Structural components of dialogical educational activity are motivational, communicative, organizational, gnostic, creative, emotional, evaluative ones.
Formation of professional language competence of specialists in social work is an educational process. Its ultimate goal is to master the system of principles, methods and techniques aimed at effective communicative interaction with colleagues and patients.
Thus, having analyzed the modern theory of language and practice of speech training of students majoring in humanitarian specialities, in particular in social work, one can conclude that the issues of professional language competence have not yet been sufficiently developed.There is an urgent need to find new didactic and practical solutions in the field of professional language training for future specialists, improvement of all its components.
We define the essence of professional language competence of a social work specialist as his/her ability to use language norms efficiently and effectively in order to achieve goals and objectives determined in accordance with specific professional speaking situations.
Professional training of a bachelor students majoring in Social Work should combine specialized language theory, which is based on modern achievements of science and technology, with the practice of future professional activities. The problem of substantiation of pedagogical conditions for the formation of professional language competence of future social work specialists and the creation of a model for its formation requires further complex research.
2. Pedagogical conditions for formation of professional language competence of