existing educational system, and in conditions of moral and legal constraints – to create a new moral and legal field and to make more radical changes.
education from the age of six, four years (from 1982 to 1986) were conducted experimental research.
In Poland, they also encountered certain problems with the transition of children to six-year-old as a first year pupil. In particular, teachers were not ready, the absence of classrooms and didactic support, as well as resistance from parents was significant.
There were even mass protests under the slogan "Save the Toddlers", because parents believed that in this way they stole childhood from their children provided them school age that stared from 6.
In 2012, new changes in education were made. Teachers were given the possibility to write their own copyright programs. However, they were not ready for this. History teachers went on strikes ("hungry strikes", because the number of hours have been significantly reduced. They were supported by teachers of natural sciences and mathematics. The resistance was made because there was no preparatory work, no experimental studies were organized. Requirements for teachers grew, and wages remained the same.
From 2015 to 2018, taking into account the wishes of teachers, a new program was created. Lyceums became the most popular in Poland as a kind of secondary schools (for example, in Cracow there are more than 65 high schools, 46 of them are state-owned).
From October 1, 2018, a new law "Law 2.0" came into action. New Constitution on Science and Higher Education in Poland ", the first attempt to reform higher education for 12 years. This law allows higher education institutions to become more independent, to obtain a certain autonomy, to expand the capacity of rectors of universities, including financial decision-making.
After reforming the Polish system of education looks like this:
- From 3 to 6 years old, pre-school educational institutions (przedszkoła) are available to all. They are both public and private (from a few months to three years the child is brought up at home, but there are private nurseries, although there are very few). The state guarantees training in the kindergarten, but there is no such quarantee in the public nurseries. Education is compulsory before entering the 1st form – this is either a year in the garden, or a zero grade (zerówka) at the school;
- From 6 (or 7 years old) the child comes to school and has 8 years of study in the elementary school (szkoła podstawowa).
By 2017, the children had been studying for 6 years at elementary school and continued their studies at the gymnasium (3 years). However, since 2020, the gymnasium will be eliminated, that is, the elementary school becomes 8-year old, and the senior secondary (lyceum) is 4-year-old.
Incidentally, in Ukraine, this unsuccessful change of the name of the second educational level from the main school to the gymnasium was copied. What will change if the main school, in which there are 50-80 pupils study, is called a gymnasium, which has a long history in Ukraine. During the period of independence in Ukraine, powerful gymnasiums (500-2000 students), with high-quality pedagogical staff, system of selection of students were formed. Thus, the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine complicated the structural reformation of
Petro Sikorskyi, Igor Kolodii
education, exacerbating the contradictions between the main schools that would become subsidiaries of reference schools and those who will receive the status of the gymnasium. Therefore, it was well done in Poland, when the mistake was corrected in time.
After graduation from primary school in Poland, you can choose several ways to get the secondary education – they are lyceums or technical schools. The most popular educational institutions are general education specialized lyceums (here the studies are 4 years), but many students continue their studies in technical schools (5 years of study), or in vocational schools (3 years) and two more years in special secondary schools .
As for the assessment of students' academic achievements, the 4-point system of grades: 5, 4, 3, 2. Today, the evaluation system is six-point: "6" – excellent, "5" – very good, "4" – well, "3" – satisfactory, "2" – admissible "1" – unsatisfactory. The six-point assessment system for junior pupils is complemented by descriptive characteristics of success .
Unlike the Ukrainian evaluation system, in Poland, every type of activity in the classroom has its "weight": control work – 3 points, oral activity – 2 points, presentation of homework – 1 point.
For example, for a supervised work, the pupil received 4 points, the weight of the grade was 3 (4x3), he received 5 (5х2) for the oral answer, and 6 points for the homework (6x1 = 6).
Average rating from the subject: (4 ∙ 3 + 5 ∙ 2 + 6 ∙ 1) / (3 + 2 + 1) ≈4,6.
Then the scale is determined by the score, in the example given – "5".
Mean value mark
more 5,51 6
For each subject, a pupil has to receive a certain number of points for the semester (the number of weekly hours is multiplied by 2 and add one). For example, if in physics two lessons per week, then for a semester the student should get a minimum of 2 ∙ 2 + 1 = 5 points.
If a student do not attend the lessons and do not receive the required number of points, he receives an assessment of "unqualified" and, with the permission of the members of teachers, is obliged to finalize the material and write control test from all material.
The internal evaluation system also includes an assessment of behavior. In the first three classes the assessment is descriptive. And from the fourth grade, an assessment for behavior is put forward by a class teacher on the following scale:
excellent, good, correct, unsatisfactory. External assessment of pupils is conducted by the Central and District Examination Commissions. Before the last reform in the first stage of external evaluation, the district examination commission checks the competences of the graduates of the 6-year primary school.
Reforms of secondary education in Ukraine…
For the graduates of the 3-year high school (gymnasium), which is based on the 6-year primary school, the district examination commission conducts mandatory exams that check the skills and knowledge of the humanities and natural sciences and mathematics disciplines. Preparations for examinations start two years before they begin.
When evaluating, the teacher should be guided by the following standards: – usefulness (evaluation will not matter if adequate materials are not used); – diligence (evaluation must be carried out using means that guarantee the probability of the results); – realism (evaluation is made from the point of view of expediency, economic and organizational motives); – ethics (to evaluate only correctly) . An external assessment of a pupil achievements is a complex form of student achievement control. But this phenomena is necessary in the process of reforming the educational system.
Thus, a model of external evaluation has been introduced in Poland with a view to improving the quality control of education, improving the quality of curricula, and identifying the educational advantages and disadvantages of pupils. Graduation exams consist of two parts: internal in the form of oral examination and external – written. From the final examinations, winners of subject competitions are released, winners and holders of language certificates issued by foreign universities or institutes specializing in the preparation of foreigners. Graduates of Polish lyceums make a Polish and math exam on matriculation certificate. Within the framework of the new “matura” (final + entrance examinations), at least four exams must be completed: three compulsory – Polish, a foreign language, mathematics (at 142 different levels of complexity) and one voluntary exam – chemistry, history, physics, biology, geography and a foreign language.
The extra-scholastic assessment will be given by the examination committee together with the district examining commissions. After all, they are developing criteria, requirements and tasks according to which they conduct exams, assess the level of knowledge and achievements of pupils. An examiner may become a teacher who has the appropriate qualification, not less than four years of work experience and will pass the relevant exam .
For teachers, the minimum wage is guaranteed, guaranteed by the "Teacher's Card" (Karta Nauczyciela). According to it, the lowest salary for the teacher with the lowest category – 2.717 złotych, it is about 16.302 hryvnia. Depending on the teacher's experience, this salary may increase to 30 thousand of hryvnias.
And these are the only the funds provided by the state as a guaranteed salary for teachers.
In addition to it, there are additional payments, which carry out the “gminy”.
Depending on how rich and generous the “gmina” is, the amount of bonuses to teachers in the form of bonuses may vary. According to the law, 1% of the amount of teacher's salary in the school is spent on improving the teacher's qualifications. At the same time, teachers in Poland, like in Ukraine, have the right to choose where to undergo an advanced training.
Petro Sikorskyi, Igor Kolodii
In Ukraine, the salary of a teacher, depends on the pedagogical experience, qualification categories and pedagogical titles, can vary from 4995 to 7760, that is very low. The "Teacher's Map" in Poland also suggests that a teacher should have the amount of work that are 18 hours a week.
However, in some cases, this amount of work is bigger, provided that the teachers agree to these (24-26 hours). In Ukraine, the same educational amount of work, however, the reduction of almost half the number of pupils and the unlimited term of the teacher's work led to the fact that most teachers do not have a full rate of study amount of work. Polish law states that the state guarantees free education, but local self-government officies are responsible for it. Therefore, the budget provides for funds.
The money for education in Poland comes to “gminy” consisting of several sources: educational subvence, targeted subvence to local self-government administrations, own income of “gminy”, as well as through European Union funds.
The largest part of this amount is an educational subvence. Its total amount is determined annually in the budget, agrees by the Minister of Education and the Minister of Finance. In other words, there is an amount that the minister must correctly divide, taking into account the number of pupils in Polish schools. To do this, he uses the so-called "Standard A" – the size of "the cost of teaching one student in a big city." This standard is growing annually, now it is about 5 thousand zlotych per year, about 30 thousand hryvnia (in Ukraine about 10 thousand gryvnias).
However, the general distribution of the subvention is affected by about 40 indicators – a village school or a city, whether there are representatives of national minorities or not, whether there are children with disabilities or not. Accordingly, the money for the training of one pupil in them varies.
Each “gmina” receives this amount in terms of each pupil – so schools compete for each pupil. Similarly, the state transfers money to non-public schools, that is, private schools. Targeted grants are provided for material assistance to schools, the purchase of textbooks, and certain programs that are identified as priorities. For example, this year it concerns food in the dining room. The target subsidy is also money distributed to kindergartens. One more source of money is the personal income of the “Gminy”, which they have from local taxes. In addition, there is still money from European Union regional funds
They are also spent on ensuring equal access to a good quality education for all schoolchildren. Therefore, in the poorer “gmina”, more money is sent.
European Union funds are sending funds not directly to the fugitive budget, but to certain projects. They are selected on a competitive basis by the provincial leadership. In this case, often these projects are conducted by various public associations and non-profit organizations.
Since the sum of the educational subvention for each variable is calculated on the basis of one pupil, this makes them optimize their expenses – united schools, classes. If the “gmina” does not do this, then they will simply have additional costs.
The counties correspond for education in lyceums, vocational schools and technical schools.
Reforms of secondary education in Ukraine…
Students take exams after elementary school and gymnasium (until 2021).
However, these indicators are not a criterion for admission to the following levels of school. It is rather a measure for schools to know if they are good at teaching children.
The results of the school assessment are published in open access, and therefore parents can monitor the level of education at their institution.
An examination after the completion of secondary education is as our external independent evaluation – is called “matura”. It allows the graduate to enter a higher education institution.
Primary school and gymnasium are fixed in certain areas. As a result, they are required to take a student from this area. This is done deliberately to avoid the selection of children in certain schools. In Ukraine, certain areas for recruiting students to the first class are also assigned to schools.
At the same time, lyceums in Ukraine and Poland seek to select students with a high level of knowledge, and not by territorial affiliation. In rural areas, there are no entrance examinations at each stage of the primary school -gymnasium- lyceum. The director of the school in Poland, as well as in Ukraine, is appointed by the governing body after the competition. The competition commission consists of representatives of the management of education, the governing body, the parents' council, the school pedagogical meeting and the trade union . An eight-year elementary school is compulsory for all children, and in Ukraine it is secondary education.
3. The Concept "New Ukrainian School" is the basis for reforming