Students take exams after elementary school and gymnasium (until 2021).
However, these indicators are not a criterion for admission to the following levels of school. It is rather a measure for schools to know if they are good at teaching children.
The results of the school assessment are published in open access, and therefore parents can monitor the level of education at their institution.
An examination after the completion of secondary education is as our external independent evaluation – is called “matura”. It allows the graduate to enter a higher education institution.
Primary school and gymnasium are fixed in certain areas. As a result, they are required to take a student from this area. This is done deliberately to avoid the selection of children in certain schools. In Ukraine, certain areas for recruiting students to the first class are also assigned to schools.
At the same time, lyceums in Ukraine and Poland seek to select students with a high level of knowledge, and not by territorial affiliation. In rural areas, there are no entrance examinations at each stage of the primary school -gymnasium- lyceum. The director of the school in Poland, as well as in Ukraine, is appointed by the governing body after the competition. The competition commission consists of representatives of the management of education, the governing body, the parents' council, the school pedagogical meeting and the trade union . An eight-year elementary school is compulsory for all children, and in Ukraine it is secondary education.
3. The Concept "New Ukrainian School" is the basis for reforming
Application of knowledge is an important practical component of education that can be differentiated into two parts: abstract and vital. So, the Ukrainian curriculum and textbooks have many drawbacks with the abstract application of knowledge. For example, stereometric textbooks require pupils to solve abstract problems in finding the surface area and the volume of the rectangular parallelepiped, but in most cases pupils will not be able to calculate how much paint is needed to paint the walls of the room. Moreover, with each subsequent generation of textbooks, the number of vital tasks is reduced.
Not many vital tasks, for example, in mathematics, are proposed for external independent evaluation. So, in order to direct the practical component of the educational subject to the solution of important life problems, it is necessary to start from above:
- change the essence of external independent evaluation (from abstract tasks to vital);
- change the concept of training curricula and textbooks.
Is the current "way of studying in a modern Ukrainian school"  motivates children to study? We must note that the modern school has in its arsenal quite a large number of techniques, methods, forms and means of learning, new educational technologies. It is only necessary to structurally rebuild the educational system so that it itself motivates the students to intensive training. The Ukrainian educational system does not motivate students to systematical styding.
Regardless of how the pupils complete the primary school (even at "1" – "5"), they will be able to continue their education in high school and regardless of whether they graduate from high school, they will be able to continue their studies at a particular higher educational institution (124 according to the results of the external independent evaluation from non-profiled subjects – this is the lack of any knowledge of the subject, and 140 of the profiles – an estimate of "4"). At present, 82% of school graduates study in higher education institutions, and in Finland, for example, only 16%, in Germany – 30%. That is, our educational system is unnatural appropriate.
Tutoring became a shameful phenomenon in Ukrainian education: in graduating classes students instead of generalizing and systematizing knowledge of high school, attend tutors, practically not attending classes in school. The "stuffed fish"is referred to in the concept "New Ukrainian School".
Thus, an external independent assessment of bribes while joining an institution of higher education has created new contradictions, which will depend on both the quality of secondary education and the quality of higher education. Part of this problem will be solved by an external independent evaluation of the course for the main school, which is planned to implement this concept. However, as always in the long run. In our view, external independent assessment of pupils’ achievements was initially required for primary school graduates, and then for secondary education.
Moreover, it is necessary to establish a high standard of the overall score of the external independent evaluation, so that, in the academic field, only 40% of the graduates of the primary school study in high school, and the rest – have received professional education, and not for everyone it should be combined with the secondary education.
Reforms of secondary education in Ukraine…
Is it possible "to balance even the role of school in the development of children" . It can be argued if you do not use the principle of natural conformity. In fact, in school, one can and must continue to develop physically and intellectually every child in the genetic field that he or she has set. That is, equalizing the physical and mental development of pupils at school will not succeed in anything and never: children will rema in different. We only need to maximally develop the physical and mental abilities of each student.
Concerning the development of mental abilities, V.O. Sukhomlynsky wrote:
"You are thinking about how much work you should spend on a teacher, cultivating mental powers and abilities, without which it is impossible to master this depth of knowledge" [8, p.424].
And yet one more intresting item: "Do not force to sit as much as possible over the book, but try to cultivate the mind, to develop the mental abilities of the child..."
[8, p. 524].
It would be nice if the current and future school fulfilled the task assigned to it:
- identify and develop the abilities of each child at first in elementary school (paper cutting, sticking them, sewing and embroidery, modeling of plasticine, drawing, etc.), and then in the main (guys: basic wood operations (placement, planing, drilling), cutting, gluing, etc.), with metal (placement, sawing, cutting, drilling, etc.), electrical appliances (installation of electric circuits, installation of sockets and switches, etc.),as well as to plant and grow bushes and trees, flowers, vegetable crops, etc.; girls: basic operations related to sewing (sewing, flipping, sewing buttons, knitting, designing and sewing of simple clothes, embroidery, etc.), cooking (preparation of the first, second and third dishes, baking, etc.)
- In parallel with this, class leaders must work with a practical psychologist, on the one hand, to study the psychological and physical characteristics of each student, and on the other hand, psychophysical requirements for a particular profession in order to resonate them, then the choice of profession will be conscious and purposeful;
- It is obvious that after graduating from primary school, the graduate will be ready to choose her profession in accordance with such conditions, which corresponds to natural abilities, vocations and life needs.
In addition, life will make its own adjustments: new professions will emerge, a vast number of new factories will be built, some professions will be displaced by others, more technological processes will be saturated. Therefore, the entire school process should be directed at preparing students for lifelong learning. One of the leading approaches in the New Ukrainian School should be an activity approach.
It is good that "within the framework of the introduction of a competence approach a new system of measurement and evaluation of learning outcomes will be created. In particular, the content of the external independent evaluation will be changed ".
Petro Sikorskyi, Igor Kolodii
The current 12-point scale of assessment and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Criteria for assessing academic achievements do not provide objectivity in the conditions of direct evaluation.
To make sure this is enough to try on the Criteria to objectively evaluate the student's response, for example, to "7" and "9" in geography.
7" – the pupil has sufficient geographical knowledge and applies them to solve standard situations; can provide a complete understanding of natural and social phenomena, is able to monitor the environment; enough map material.
"9" – the pupil has an adequate level of educational material, can apply it for practical work; has a clear idea of the components of nature and spatial organization of the economy; explains the causal relationships with nature and economy; almost without error works with map material ".
Is it possible to uniquely and objectively evaluate the student with grades "7"
and "9"? What is the difference between "having sufficient geographical knowledge and applying them..." and "at the appropriate level, about the teaching material and usage of it..." or "possesses sufficient cartographic material" and "works almost unerringly with the cartographic material"? What is stronger: "enough" or "almost unmistakable"? and why for "almost error-free" knowledge, the score for two points is greater than for "sufficient" knowledge? And here it is impossible to blame the authors of the criteria: it is almost impossible to conclude unambiguous criteria for direct evaluation, if the scale is 12-points.
Thus, for the pupil's assessment to be objectively evaluated directly, both the teacher and the pupil need to know the criteria for each assessment that is impossible.
In addition, it is proposed to determine the grades for the subject, the semester as the average of the obtained estimates. However, grades have different weight.
It is also planned in the nearesr future to change the "content of external independent evaluation" .
In our view, it is necessary to change not only the content of external independent evaluation, but also some procedural components. The positive element of external independent evaluation is that has deprived of bribery in entering higher educational institutions. However it also brought to education a vast number of negative components, namely:
the school has been occupied with the tutoring that currently performs, as a rule, a negative function (students do not systematically and systematically study in previous classes, with the hope that only a comprehensive tutor prepares them for external independent evaluation, that is, there is no motivation for intensive training for all years, knowledge which students try to get in a short period (a few months), are quickly forgotten and, according to university lecturers, students with high external independent evaluation points are not able to master the program of higher education;
graduates, for the most part, rarely attend school. Their secondary education is not complete; teachers are forced to accept this condition, that is, the image of the school is constantly falling. In addition, teachers are not in the same conditions:
only those teachers whose subjects are involved in the external independent evaluation can earn extra funds; teachers – tutors, as a rule, do not pay taxes);
Reforms of secondary education in Ukraine…
not proper organized schedule of conducting external evaluations tests (this year on 23rd May) also disrupts the synthesis and systematization of educational material in the graduation class; all conditions must be created to ensure that the academic year is complete, and the external independent evaluation must start not earlier than June 5;
it is necessary to pre-examine the test tasks on the validity and reliability, do not offer in the course of external testing tasks related to the secondary educational material;
prepare training manuals on all subjects, in which to focus the main educational material (theoretical and practical), based on which test assignments will be made);
bring up to 170 passing points for entrance to the university from all subjects.
The pedagogy of partnership, which is the basis of the concept, calls upon subjects (teachers and students) and parents to respect mutual respect, benevolent attitude, mutual trust and dialogue. These requirements are universal and Christian, and therefore axiomatic for the educational process and humane pedagogy in general.
Another requirement of partnership pedagogy is the principles of social partnership, the spectrum of which, in our opinion, needs to be expanded considerably (legality, equality, democratic principles, voluntariness and reality of obligations, obligatory implementation of agreements, responsibility, control over implementation of agreements).
It is not difficult to replace the one-sided authoritarian communication "a teacher-a pupil" with dialogue and multilateral communication between pupils, teachers and parents.
The educational system needs to be designed in such a way that students who have "mind at the fingertips" have acquired labor professions, without which the economy can not function in any country. By the way, education reform envisages solving this problem by introducing an external independent assessment for graduates of the main school. According to its results, the graduates of the main school will be distributed for further study in two streams: academic and professional.
"The teacher should be your friend. This is an axiom. How can a child be in the classroom, perceive certain information if she or he learns from a person who is afraid? ". A student should not fear the teacher, but respect him, in the end, as well as the other way round. Psychological and pedagogical science has proved that the educational material is better perceived and assimilated, if the class is trusting and there are good relationships between students and teachers, if the teacher does not scream, does not frighten pupils (parents, director). But it depends not only on the teacher, but also on the pupils. How to teach children who do not accept educational material or do not want to study is even worse when they do not want to and can not study.
"The Ukrainian school will be successful if it comes with a successful teacher. If he is a successful teacher and specialist – he will solve a lot of questions about the quality of teaching, the scope of homework, communication with children and school administration. A person-leader who can lead a child who loves his subject, which
Petro Sikorskyi, Igor Kolodii
teaches him professionally, should come to the children ", noted in the concept" New Ukrainian School ".
To fulfill the multifaceted conceptual task, you need:
a) create a new system of selection of well-trained graduates of secondary schools for study at colleges and universities;
b) make significant changes in the preparation of the teacher of high school in pedagogical higher educational institutions;
c) to build an effective system of professional growth of a teacher after graduating from a college or university.
To create a new system for selecting the best graduates of schools for studying at higher educational institutions, you need:
in the 9th-10th grades it is necessary to introduce students to the future teachers' professions and, based on their results, form groups of students – future teachers;
organize for these pupils’ clubs: "Fundamentals of the pedagogical profession",
"Creative features of the lesson", etc.;
to organize pedagogical practice for pupils: test lessons, preparation of educational activities, animator in summer camps for students' recreation, etc. Of course, without decent wages it will be difficult to direct the best graduates of schools to pedagogical universities only with the help of pedagogical means. However, there are promising words in the concept: "Much attention will be paid to material stimulation," as well as "the reform provides a number of incentives for personal and professional growth to attract the best in the profession" .
Among the material things is not only the salary, but also the opportunity to increase it with the help of attestation (regular and extraordinary), as well as voluntary certification. In addition to material incentives, it is proposed to give the teacher academic freedom, he will be able to prepare his own author's curriculum, choose textbooks, methods, strategies, methods and means of teaching, express his professional opinion actively. The state will guarantee him freedom from interference in professional activities ".
V.O. Sukhomlynskii noted: "The spiritual wealth of the teaching staff is a constant exchange of values. Life is rife in a collective only when everyone gives something to his comrades. Without this spiritual return, life becomes a duty of duty
The direction of the team for the mutual exchange of universal and pedagogical values is obliged by the head of the educational institution. Appropriate installation from the head is required, as well as significant efforts to develop the core of the teachers, which will direct teachers to creative rethinking of the lesson, the search for new techniques, methods and forms of work, the use of effective teaching technologies, etc.
Currently, in Ukraine, the heads of educational institutions are appointed by the results of the competitive selection for 2 years, and then for another 4 years. After that, he can not claim the position of head of the same school. According to these innovations, VO Sukhomlynsky could not work for more than 20 years as director of Pavlitskaya secondary school and to create a new pedagogy.
"Opening up the teacher's opportunities for creative research in the process of day- Reforms of secondary education in Ukraine…
to-day work is one of the tasks of the school leadership," noted V.O.Sukhomlynskyi [8, p.475]. It's good that the concept "the teacher will have the right to choose the place and method of advanced training" . Today, many universities have licenses to improve the skills of teaching staff. A competitive environment is being created that will encourage Institutes of Postgraduate Education to increase the scientific and pedagogical level of training, get rid of formalism in their work.
Thus, in the concept of "New Ukrainian School", the new Law of Ukraine "On Education" has laid a lot of innovative ideas and provisions, the implementation of which will allow to bring to a higher level the training of a successful teacher wgo is
"an agent of change" – and, consequently, the quality of education in general.
Education in Ukraine is being reformed since the beginning of independence. In 1991, the Law of Ukraine "On Education" was adopted. This law introduced significant changes in Ukrainian secondary education. In the first place, deideologization of the content of education from the dominance of Marxism- Leninism was carried out. The school began to study the true history of Ukraine, artistic works of repressed writers, and others like that. In the educational system there were new educational institutions: high schools, lyceums, colleges. Many of them had a long history. Schools were democratized, students had the opportunity to choose educational subjects from the variational part of the curriculum. The school used a differentiated approach. In senior grades it was allowed to profile teaching.
The 12-point rating system (2000) and external independent evaluation (2008) were introduced. The content of education was updated in connection with the transition to 12-year studying. However, it was not destined. The pro-Russian government in 1212 closed this transition, leaving the high school 11 years old.
In 2018, the New Ukrainian School was launched in accordance with the approved concept "New Ukrainian School". The new Law of Ukraine "On Education" gave a legal start to new reforms in education. For the second time, the authorities are trying to increase the term of study in high school to 12 years. Many pedagogical innovations are borrowed from Poland: the appropriate integration of content in elementary school, the three-tiered structure of secondary education (elementary school, gymnasium, lyceum), the decentralization of the management of educational institutions, the provision of maximum autonomy to schools, activity and competence approaches in the educational process, the appointment of heads of educational institutions on competitive basis.
At the same time, much remains to be done in restructuring the educational system (basic schools and their affiliates), filling education with new content on a competent basis, creating a new system for assessing student achievement, introducing an external independent assessment for high school graduates, the establishment of a new teacher training system, the improvement of the certification of teachers, the creation of an internal and external quality assurance system.
Artykuł naukowy potwierdza nową metodologię rozwiązywania sprzeczności w edukacji. Opiera się na następujących zasadach: tożsamości przeciwieństw w nieskończoności, przejściu od abstrakcji do konkretnego, interakcji dialogu,
Petro Sikorskyi, Igor Kolodii