• No results found

Aspects of creativity


Creativity is a response to the growing complexity and dynamics of the social environment. Therefore, modern teaching should aim at:

 preparing young people for creative work. Education of the individual with innovative thinking and behavior;

 training people, ready for social change, innovators, leaders, molding creative social behavior;

 self-development. Training a creative person – this is preparation for self- development, managing one's life, perfection in a chosen sphere of activity, self- realization, creating one's own personality.

1 Fenomen innovacij: osvita, suspilʹstvo, kulʹtura: monohrafija, Pedahohična dumka, Kyjiv, 2008, s. 7

The stimulus of the activity of the innovative unit is the willingness to learn, the desire not only to receive ready knowledge, but the ability to think and analyze information independently.

The concept of innovative education is associated with the idea of transgressive education. Transgression makes it possible to change reality and in this sense connects with creativity, and in the case of positive transgression is its synonym.

Creativity, therefore, is an expression of human transgression – 'expansive behavior that goes beyond the typical boundaries of activity, by means of which the individual creates positive and negative values that are a source of development and regression'2. The need for transgressive education results from significant changes in the modern world, the increase in the value of human life, technological and scientific progress.

However, then new problems arise. In transgressive teaching of creative personality, productive methods are decisive: the implementation of convergent and divergent tasks, developmental didactic games, training seminars, training of creativity, and simulation modeling. A student using these methods demonstrates creative or expressive transgression, which goes beyond the limits of his educational achievements. Transgression develops the cognitive, instrumental, motivational, emotional and personal spheres of personality. The development of society requires a creative orientation, consisting of:

 a creative approach to problem solving and decision making;

 search and implementation of changes, openness to changes, activity, self- management and one’s life.

Developing creativity – a special form of cognitive expansion – intrigues people from the very beginning. Creativity is not subject of rational cognition, based on reasoning, methodology and experience. Some scientists believe that the phenomenon of creativity can not be fully understood and experienced, it is impossible to build a unified theory of creativity and to recreate it with the world of personality. It is not so easy to understand the essence of the phenomenon of creativity, how difficult it is to create a psychological portrait of the creator with its unique qualities, abilities and skills that are needed to overcome the threshold of intrapsychic competences for which creative cognitive exploration into art or science begins.

The psychological approach to the study of the process of creativity involves the study of its relationship with mental activity (intelligence, memory, thinking, perception, intuition, imagination, the role of the unconscious in creativity etc).

However, the reduction of creativity to the mental activity of a person does not allow to assess the diversity of this phenomenon. Contemporary psychology treats creativity as a phenomenon that manifests itself at various levels.

Based on the Ya. O. Ponomariow concept of creativity, pedagogy of creativity should be considered as a fundamental science – 'the field of general pedagogy, which absorbs the results of psychology of creativity'3.

Ya. O. Ponomariow noted that for the introduction of the psychology of creativity as an abstract science to the pedagogy of creativity as a concrete science,

2 A.Horalʹsʹkyj, Teorija tvorčosti, – Kamenjar, Lʹviv, Universitas rediviva, Warszawa, 2002, s. 12

3 Pedahohična tvorčistʹ: metodolohija, teorija, texnolohiji [V. P. Andruščenko, S. O. Sysojeva, N. V.

Huzij, N. V. Kičuk]; za red. S. O. Sysojevoji, N. V. Huzij, NPU imeni M.P.Drahomanova, Kyjiv, 2005, s. 21.

Roksolyana Shvay, Nataliya Morska

conditions for the development of effective transformative knowledge about creative activity are necessary, and the pedagogy of creativity understood as fudament science is part of the unity of abstraction and concrete.

S.O.Sysojewa defines the pedagogy of creativity as 'the field of general pedagogy, which examines the peculiarities, regularities of training the creative unit, development and self-development of creative potential in the learning process; creating psychological and pedagogical conditions to develop the creative potential of the individual in socially useful and individually significant areas of life'4. The tasks in pedagogy of creativity include the development of psychological and pedagogical concepts of self-improvement and the involvement of personality in the creative process5. The main phenomenon studied in the pedagogy of creativity is training the creative personality of the student in his educational interaction with the teacher. The process of training a creative personality can not be separated from the creative development of the one who teaches and educates, because it aims not only to consciously assimilate knowledge, skills, mold the worldview, behavior culture etc, but also to create immanent motivation, characteristic traits, creative skills, mental processes that promote the success of creative activities. Creativity development systems, criteria for the selection of content, principles of psychodidactics, methods and tools are subordinated to the main goal – to develop creative abilities of young people.

The pedagogy of creativity (pedagogy of ability)6 is interpreted as art, and creativity is a generic feature of man and of humanity. On the other hand, it is a kind of craft or skill, or human action, in which there are traditions, masters, corporations, professional secrets and rules that can and must be taught. The lecturer (Master) is to have the ability to recognize non-verbal signals of his students, be aware of his own and students' style of thinking and to differentiate their impact on them. 'Pedagogy of ability is not an autonomous domain, it exists alongside pedagogy and seems to be independent of pedagogy, it is a kind of style of its behavior, educational position and a special kind of achievement.'7

The conditions necessary to develop creativity ща the youth are:

 care of talented young people;

 stability in the education of gifted youth, based on the relationship 'teacher – student';

 diversity, providing deep versatile knowledge and diverse skills;

 complementarity as a student's activity while performing tasks;

 the specificity of raising young people talented by recognizing the subjectivity, unity and originality of thinking and effort to create conditions that best promote creativity;

4 S.O. Sysojeva, Osnovy pedahohičnoji tvorčosti, Kyjiv. Milenium, 2006, s. 112.

5 Tamże s. 86.

6 A. Horalʹsʹkyj. Pravyla treninhu tvorčosti, VNTL, Lʹviv, 1998. – 52 s., A.Horalʹsʹkyj. Teorija tvorčosti, – Kamenjar, Lʹviv, Universitas rediviva, Warszawa, 2002, 144 s., А.Goralski. Wzorce twórczości (eseje filozoficzne i pedagogiczne), Scholar, Warszawa, 1998, 113 s., Szkice do pedagogiki zdolnosci / Pod red. A. Goralskiego, Scholar Warshawa, 1996, 143 s.

7 A.Horalʹsʹkyj. Teorija tvorčosti, – Kamenjar, Lʹviv, Universitas rediviva, Warszawa, 2002, s. 83.

Creation, strategies and tactics of technical creation

 generativity as the pursuit of combining spirituality and pragmatism, the tendency to dream and cold calculation, which can be a generator of success in life, the implementation of creativity;

 increase in the creative achievements of the individual as well as the creative environment in determining the field of his activity;

 striving for self-fulfillment of students and teachers as a means of pedagogy of creativity and pedagogical skills.

Important questions regarding creativity pedagogy can be formulated as follows8:

 what are the anthropological premises of cretivity?

 what content and tools should be used to create creative skills?

 how to organize the process of preparation for creativity?

 what methods are present for implementing this process?

 what pedagogical principles are needed to implement this process?

Answers to these questions allow to define the main goal of pedagogy of creativity as preparation for the implementation of creative activity, generating knowledge in the field of bringing up children, adolescents and adults to creativity.

Among the tasks of the pedagogy of creativity, we distinguish: the development of creative skills, emotions and motivations, the construction of learning models of creativity and the study of the determinants of this process; shaping the structures of the creative value of personality, individuality, creative lifestyle, developing a creative attitude. From the point of view of the approach to activity, Jan Łaszczyk, defining the pedagogical subject of the subdiscipline, identifies the pedagogy of creativity with the system of practical activity, and not with the knowledge system and ways of its formation. 9

W.N Drużynin emphasizes creativity among the general abilities – ‘creative is not the one who first created the ideas, and the one who made meaningful connections, worked on understanding the idea, its function in relation to other elements of the semantic space of knowledge that exist in this culture.10 ' Ye. P. Ilyin defines creativity as a 'subjective factor of creativity, systemic (multidimensional, multi-level) psychological creation. Creativity manifests itself in innovative transformations, in all (or some) areas of life (cognition, thinking, professional activities etc) at the levels: unit (potential) – process – result.'11 Creativity is the foundation of a creative personality 'determinant of which the creative activity of the individual serves as an externally non-stimulated activity that relies on searching and processing' (S. O. Sysojewa).12

8 J.Łaszczyk. W kierunku pedagogiki twórczości, Acta “Universitatis Nicołai Copernici.

Pedagogika” // Twórczość, Środowisko, Edukacja, 1997, № ХХІІ, s. 135 – 158.

9 J.Łaszczyk W kierunku pedagogiki twórczości, Acta “Universitatis Nicołai Copernici.

Pedagogika” // Twórczość, Środowisko, Edukacja, 1997, № ХХІІ, s. 135 – 158.

10 V.N. Družynyn. Psycholohyja obščych sposibnostej. SPb.. Pyter, 2007. s. 201

11 E.P. Ylʹyn, Psycholohyja tvorčestva, kreatyvnosty, odarennosty, SPb., Pyter, 2011, s. 160.

12 S.O. Sysojeva, Osnovy pedahohičnoji tvorčosti, Milenium, Kyjiv. 2006. s.124.

Roksolyana Shvay, Nataliya Morska

According to Ye. P. Ilyin, the concept of 'creativity' is slightly wider than the concept of 'creative potential' because 'creativity' has potential and current forms.

In the approach of W. O. Molako who uses the concept of 'creative potential', including skills, talents, talent and genius, that is, the whole spectrum of creative possibilities of a human being.

Among the specific elements of creative potential, such as general intelligence, interests, intuition, personal strategies and tactics of solving problems is creativity as the ability to combine, find analogies, reconstruct, tendency to change variants, effectiveness of solutions, rationality of resource use. The structural elements of creative potential include: the ability to reconstruct, find analogies, and the ability to think and behave in a non-standard way. An expression of the creative potential of W.O. Molako13 determines according to the following criteria:

1) polyvariancy as the number of problem solving variants;

2) ingenuity, in particular as the speed of solving problems;

3) originality as a reflection of the identity of the individual who solves the problem.

Yu. L. Trofimow14 interpreted creativity as a process of creating a new, useful product. In terms of the fundamental novelty of the product, he identified four levels of creativity:

1) the highest level characterizes the creative process, leads to a completely new result, new to all humanity. It is the work of excellent writers, artists, composers, inventions and discoveries that transform human life in various directions (from atomic bombs to penicillin);

2) the second level of creativity refers to a product that is new to a fairly large group of people in a given country or world;

3) the third level characterizes the novelty of a creative product for a limited group of people (for example, an innovative proposal);

4) the fourth level – the novelty of the product is subjective, relative, only relevant for the person who creates it.

S. O. Gruzenberg, examining the mechanisms of the creative process, emphasizes the rational and mystical conception of creativity. He distinguishes the following types of creativity15:

 philosophical (which contains two subtypes: gnosiological (cognition of the world thanks to intuition) and metaphysical (metaphysical content in a religious and ethical concept;

 psychological has two varieties: approximation to natural sciences related to creative imagination, intuitive thinking, creative inspiration and ecstasy, objectification of images, creativity of primitive peoples, crowd, children, creators of inventors (ewrology), unconscious works (in dreams etc) and the branch of

13 Psycholohične doslidžennja tvorčoho potencialu osobystosti [monohrafija / nauk. ker. Moljako V.

O.. Pedahohična dumka. Kyjiv, 2008, 208 s.

14 Psycholohija [Ju. L. Trofimov, V. V. Rybalka, P. A. Hončaruk ta in].; za red Ju. L. Trofimova.

Lybidʹ, Kyjiv, 2001, 560 s.

15 Hruzenberh S. O. Henyj y tvorčestvo. Osnovy teoryy y psycholohyy tvorčestva. Krasand, Moskva, 2010. 264 s.

Creation, strategies and tactics of technical creation

psychopathology (studies of genius and madness, influence of heredity, alcoholism, sex peculiarities, traits of mentally ill people and the media);

 intuitive – with ethical and historical – literary variations (aesthetic – revealing the metaphysical nature of the world through artistic intuition). The creative act is treated as an intuitive process.

W. M. Bechteriew believed that creativity is a reaction to stimuli, in particular the reaction itself and the elimination of the tension caused by this stimulus. The stimulus stimulates reflexes of concentration, which evokes mimic-somatic reflexes.

The changes start in energy level, myocardial vessels and hormons that stimulate brain activity. Concentration with mimic-somatic reflexes creates a dominant in mental activity that causes changes in all other parts of the brain. With the restoration of the previous experience around the dominanta, all the backup material concentrates, which in one way or another concerns the stimulus – problems. At the same time, all other processes of mental activity, not directly related to the stimulus – the problem, are retarding. The choice of material, analysis and syntheses are made.

For each work, according to W. M. Bechteriev,16 a certain degree of aptitude and proper upbringing is needed, which allows training the skills of the activity. Such education develops the ability to manifest natural abilities, which results in an almost unqualified thirst for the creativity, the object of which – the environment in the form of nature, material culture and social environment. S. L. Rubinsztejn17 applied the activity as an approach to procedural understanding of creativity. He emphasized the importance of personality research not only as an active one, but also as a creative object of activity. The creative process is the result of the conscious activity of the subject, and the abilities are molded as a result of the psychic connection of the subject's activity with the objects of his activity. The abilities manifest themselves, and they mold and develop themselves in the process of their implementation in achievements. According to S. L. Rubinsztejn, one can not deny the violence of the greatest discoveries, but their source – not intuition, not the kind of enlightenment that occurs without work. This is something that deeply falls into the eyes, a peculiar critical point separating the solved problem from the unsolved one. Going through this point is pretty much a jump. The violence, intuitiveness of creative activity most often manifest itself where the hypothetical solution is more obvious than the approaches and methods leading to it.

This is anticipation, foresight of the results of the mental work to be performed.

But the scientist's intellectual activity according to the developed techniques of thinking is usually systematic, and prediction – this is mainly the result of a long prior conscious work.

A. Bruszlinsky believed that creativity is the main feature of any thinking, which is always searching, discovering, creating a new one, and therefore this process is creative. Every thinking is always at least minimal creative.

In the mind of S.O.Sysojewa, the basis of creativity is activity as 'creating a qualitatively new, which is distinguished by uniqueness, originality and socio-

16 S.L. Rubinštejn. Osnovy obšej psycholohyy. SPb.. Pyter, 2000. 624 s.

17 Tamże.

Roksolyana Shvay, Nataliya Morska

historical uniqueness'18. Creativity and activity are aimed at transforming the surrounding world. Creativity closely related to the sensual sphere of personality and manifests itself in the productive and reproductive relationship, including motives, relationships, views, experiences, self-awareness and other forms of manifesting human qualities. The motives are the stimulation of the mechanism of the creators.

and ensuring creative personality development – 'the most important task of all global educational systems.'19 A widespread interpretation of creativity arises from the information received.Therefore, a man cannot get to know the world and engage in any activity without being creative. Creativity manifests itself not only when writing artistic works, paintings, but also in what people see and hear. Such views are called pan-creationism. 20

Creativity can be treated as an activity, the result of which is the products of creation (works of art, inventions, ways of perceiving the world, methods of activity), characterized by novelty and value (aesthetic, ethical, cognitive etc) at least for the person who creates. It is the creation of new cultural and material values, productive mental activity that brings non-trivial (qualitatively new, unobvious) results, productive mental activity that allows a new result to be achieved to solve some of the contradictions. A statistically rare, original, wondrous product that differs from those previously created is new. In addition, the creative product must perform certain functions, i.e. be useful. These two components are necessary in creativity.

This means that the product of the activity can be considered creative if it is new and valuable.21 Depending on the theoretical or methodological type of study of creativity, they distinguish various aspects of this phenomenon. Among them are:

 creativity as a product (the attribute aspect);

 psychological process (processual aspect);

 creative personality (the personological aspect);

 external factors that create conditions for the creation process (aspect of stimulants – inhibitors of creativity). 22

The attribute aspect takes into account the features of the creation of creativity.

“Creative is what is new and valuable.”23. “Creative is what is new and useful for a certain group of people at a certain time”24

Processual aspect: it is important how a creative idea arises, what processes cause the birth of a new and valuable product, it focuses on searching for the answer to the question about the characteristics that characterize the creators and / or attributes of the creative personality.

18 S.O. Sysojeva, Osnovy pedahohičnoji tvorčosti, Milenium, Kyjiv. 2006. s.124.

19 Tamże, s.12.

20 W.Tatarkekiewicz. Dzieje sześciu pojęć sztuka, piękno, twórczość, odwórczość, przeźycie estetyczne. Ossolineum. Wrocław, 1982. s.305.

21 R. J. Sternberg. Defying the Crowd Cultivating Creativity in a Culture of Conformity. The Free Press, New York. 1995. s.11.

22 K. Szmidt. Pedagogika twórczośc. GWP. Gdańsк. 2012. s. 61

23 A. Góralski, Być nowatorem. Poradnik twórczego myślenia, PWN, Warszawa, 1990, s. 5.

24 M. I. Stein, Creativity and culture, Journal of Psychology, 1953, nr 35, s. 311 – 322.

Creation, strategies and tactics of technical creation

Personological aspect: focus on what people create, what psychic properties they must necessarily have to achieve creative. The approach to creativity in the aspect of a person is of great importance for pedagogy – training appropriate features, ensuring optimal development conditions.

The aspect of stimulants – creativity inhibitors focuses on the factors conditioning the creation process, analysis of the conditions in which creative activity takes place or should take place. The conditions of creativity all factors influencing the arising, content, intensity, course and results of creative activities. Internal conditions – subjective: knowledge, motivation, value system, intellectual skills, other psychological environments of the individual. External conditions – social:

material factors, technical factors, social factors, cultural factors. Stimulators – positive factors. 25

Thus, at present, there is no unambiguous interpretation of such a multidimensional concept of creativity. Because the parameters of creative potential refer to the characteristics and abilities of the individual, we assume that the concept of 'creativity' refers to personality, and the creative potential as the ability to interpret all information, reflection and training – personal life experience is the right thing for each person.

W. S. Rotenberg26 proposed a criterion that allows to distinguish true creative achievement (in science and art) from his most skilful imitation, calling the effect of astonished recognition. When a person encounters something new and unusual, especially in an area in which he has some personal experience, the first reaction should be discrepancy, protest. New or completely different from existing knowledge and imagination, it causes doubt (which causes a protective reaction) or is not considered new at all. And if suddenly, unexpectedly for the man himself, the third variant appears – receiving a new one without protest – it means that in the deep subconscious (or rather at the level of the picture) this knowledge or imagination has already been created although it has not reached consciousness. This is best answered by the sentence: 'For which I did not notice it before (I did not understand, I did not think etc)'. A sense of astonished cognition arises. Astonishment is a sign that a man actually guessed it, but he did not know anything about it, which is an essential feature of the truth of the discovery.