quantitative and qualitative indicator of scientific and educational activities of the university on the whole.
Integrology laws and their consequences fully concern personal-professional development of teachers and university students basing on the development of component-based structure of their willingness for scientific activity. Putting into consideration the correlation of willingness / conditions of scientific activity of the teacher that allows to evaluate his/her potential possibilities occupying the defined position has significant potential.
3.2. Integration of knowledge in the process of education
Integration of merely subject knowledge leads to the adding of the knowledge (according to the principle of localization), in this case we simply summarize the information. Actually such approach is not integrative in nature and leads to overload of content of training with secondary and outdated information. Consequently, there is an urgent need to archive and to minimize the unnecessary information. However, the integration of problematic knowledge generates new knowledge (according to the superposition principle): elements of problematic knowledge with each other are enriched and complemented.
The quality of knowledge assimilation depends on the degree of their integrity.
The analogy is appropriate with the principle by Pauli. To make an atom a stable and, at the same time, dynamic system, there are certain limitations in its structures. In particular, each energy level can not contain more than N = 2n2 the maximum number of electrons on the level. Similarly, the amount of knowledge that is given at somestage or in a certain system (training course, theme, module, etc.) should also have a maximum amount that can not be exceeded in order to "break" the system.
Basing on these and other limitations imposed by nature on its systems, it is advisable to introduce the principle of purpose of knowledge that is especially important in professional schools. This principle requires logical and sufficient grounding of specific (comprehensive or vocational) purpose of including each subsystem of knowledge in learning content. This principle can be one of the effective ways of dealing with academic overloading.
Individual properties preservation of the integrated knowledge elements allows to structure knowledge according to subject and problematic principle. Similarly to the types of chemical connection we can develop principles of integrative relationships between knowledge basing on the characteristics of specific knowledge (natural, humanitarian, technical, special, etc.). Ionic connection (according to which the cubic crystal lattices are based) can serve as a scheme in the construction of two- component systems of knowledge where natural and technical knowledge are equally combined. Covalent connection (common electron pair for two atoms) can be a proto- type of the formation of integrative courses related to subjects where knowledge is duplicated (e.g. in physics and chemistry). Polar connection (moving electron pair toward one atom) corresponds to the cases when one of the knowledge types in the system is necessary to focus on, for example, professionally oriented course in physics. Other analogs, especially in forming of the content knowledge for vocational education can be found in the coordination or donor-acceptor connection (electron
Yuryi Kozlovskyi, Iryna Kozlovska
pair of one atom and the vacant orbital of the other one) and also sigma-connection (cover of electron pairs).
The volume of the integrated knowledge is lower than the range of knowledge elements that are integrated (because of qualitative transformation of elements). The analogy is appropriate with the mass defect in atomic theory. This reguliarity is based on the principle of compression and archiving of information. Such process is possible by eliminating the duplication of knowledge. However, there is a process that can be compared to a defect of mass in physics: consolidating part of the "mass"
of knowledge goes into the "energy" of their relationship that is manifested in an implicit form. In the practice of learning it is implemented as follows. Studying certain concepts or theories (e.g. basis of molecular-kinetic theory in courses in physics, chemistry, materials science and some special subjects) students under conditions of merely subjective studying learn a number of concepts and relations between them (in this case there are, at least, four independent systems of knowledge that often differ with interpretations of the same phenomena, the same quntities etc.).
If these systems are submitted on the basis of an integrative approach, the newly created system gets rid of many unnecessary terms and relations. In other words, the combination of integrative knowledge by eliminating of duplication and inconsistency in their notations, students acquire the same essential knowledge in all disciplines without intermediate links focusing attention only on the relations of really significant ones. We would like to note that such approach does not deny the peculiar to each science interpretation of the material studied but only provides its coordination and complements.
Depending on the circumstances the knowledge were subjective or integrative in nature (the dualism of knowledge) due to the persistence of individual attributes of elements. The knowledge ability to integration as well as to differentiation proves the availability of invariant part (fundamental knowledge) and their ability to quantization.
3.3. Some other possibilities of using of integration laws
There are other possibilities of educative integration laws and their consequences using. This integration of various models of teaching and scientific activities of the University and methodological and general scientific approaches to teaching and research activities and activities of subdivisions and scientific structures of the university, a variety of methods and forms of learning etc. Special attention should be paid to the study of integration of scientific concepts and artistic images in the learning and scientific activity. Another important direction is the integration of learning courses, creation of metasubjects as well as integration of general educational, general and scientific and vocational components in teaching and scientific activities. These directions refer to the prospects of educative integrology.
Conclusion & discussion
Many of the problems related to the development of a holistic theory of integration in education still need to be studied separately. This defines a new field of study i.e. educative integrology. We believe that a complete theory of educational integration should be established as a scientific theory (regardless of spheres of
Educational integrology: methodology, theory…
study) i.e. to be built basing on a system of laws (or reguliarities, postulates) and their consequences that explain the large number of empirical facts and have predictive possibilities. The positive role of educational integration laws to move from an axiomatic to strict scientific theory of educational integration, to explain the large number of empirical facts and observations basing on the integration of educational integration and their consequences as well as strengthening of predictive components of scientific basis of the educational sphere.
The debatable issues are the ones directly relating to integration in the education.
The optimal usage of integration is very important for efficient educational process.
Excessive or false integration can create a number of problems by combining processes that are not integrative in the scientific sense.
The formulated laws are an attempt to identify from a significant number of well-known reguliarities a set of the most common ones that are not derived from one another. The system of these laws makes it possible to derive new, unknown reguliarities of integration directed to improving of education and optimization of all processes in educational institutions.
The article considers the problem of methodology, theory and practical using of integrative approach in education. The expediency of educative integrology of new scientific branch is grounded. The attention is focused on the offered laws of integration and its using in different parts of educational process: system that contains three basic laws of educational integration and their consequences is theoretically grounded. Specific examples of practical using of the integration laws are considered and their development prospects in educational and research activities of the Universities are defined.
Keywords: integration, integration in education, integrology, educative integrology, laws of integration, integration of scientific and learning activity of the University, integration of knowledge
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