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Basics of general histology and cytology : study guide for foreign students


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MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy

Preparatory department for foreign students

Basics of general histology and cytology

Study guide for foreign students

Poltava – 2018


Compiled by: Krivoruchko Tatyana, teacher of Department of Bioorganic and Biological Chemisty.

Ovcharenko Oksana, teacher of Preparatory Department for Foreign Citizens.

Printed by the decision of CMC "UMSA" (protocol №3, 29.11.2018).


Methodical development is based on the biology program for foreign students studying at the preparatory departments of universities of medical and biological pro- file.

The materials studied are divided into eighteen classes. Materials for each les- son include: a dictionary of new terms needed to study the topic; lexico-grammatical structures, the activation of which eliminates the difficulty involved in perception of educational material; teaching text adapted in accordance with the language back- ground of students at this stage of study; materials for reviewing and self-control of knowledge.

New lexical units are presented in a lesson-based dictionary, not in alphabetical order, but as they are used in the class text.

Methodical development contains drawings, diagrams, tables that help students with the learning of a new topic in the preparation of their own statements on the ma- terial studied.

This methodical development does not include materials for laboratory and examina- tions, as they are offered to students in a separate collection.


Class 1 Chemical composition of the cell. 3

Class 2 Inorganic substances of the cells and water 5

Class 3 Organic substances of the cells 7

Class 4 Cell structure 9

Class 5 Cell organelles 11

Class 6 Laboratory work: «Cell structure» 14

Class 7 Cell division. Mitosis 14

Class 8 Cell division. Meiosis. Amitosis 17

Class 9 Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis 20

Class 10 General histology 23

Class 11 Epithelial tissue 24

Class 12 Connective tissue 26

Class 13 Connective tissue. Blood and lymph 28

Class 14 Muscle tissue 30

Class 15 Nervous tissue 31

Class 16 Laboratory work “Animal and human tissues” 33

Class 17 Repetition 33

Class 18 Control work №2 34


Class 1. Chemical composition of the cell.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

detect / reveal виявляти, виявити обнаружи- вать/обнаружить

détecter / localiser

ﺍﮐﺘﺸﻒ، ﻋﺜﺮﻋﻠﻰ macroelement макроелемент макроэлемент, -ы nutriments, s ﻋﻧﺼﺮ ﮐﺑﻴﺮ microelemen мікроелемент микроэлемент, -ы oligo-élément, ﻋﻧﺼﺮ ﺪﻗﻴﻖ

lipid, s ліпід липид,-ы lipides, ﺪﻫﻧﻳﺎﺖ

lipoid, s ліпоїд липоид,-ы lipoïde ﴿ﺸﺤﻤﻳﺎﺖ﴾ﺩﻫﻧﻴﺎﺖ

hemoglobin гемоглобін гемоглобин hémoglobine ﻫﻴﻤﻭﺠﻠﻮﺑﻴﻦ

chlorophyll хлорофіл хлорофилл chlorophylle ﮐﻟﻮﺮﻮﻔﻳﻞ

vital activity життєдіяльність жизнедеятельность activité de la vie ﴾ﻱﻮﻴﺣ ﻃﺎﺸﻧ﴿ ﺔﻴﻮﻴﺤ thyroid щитовидна залоза щитовидная железа thyroïde ﺍﻟﻐﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺮﻗﻴﺔ pancreas підшлункова залоза поджелудочная


pancréas ﺮﻴﺎﺴﻳﺔﺍﻠﻐﺪﺓ ﺍﻠﺑﻧﮑ

hormone,-s гормон гормон, -ы hormono-s ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻦ

vitamin вітамін, -и витамин, -ы vitamine ﻔﻳﺗﺎﻤﻴﻦ

pigment пігмент, -и пигмент, -ы pigment ﺼﺑﻐﺔ

thyroxine тіроксин тироксин thyroxine ﺛﻴﺮﻮﮐﺴﻳﻦ

insulin інсулін инсулин insuline ﺍﻷﻧﺴﻮﻠﻴﻦ

transfer переноси- ти/перенести

переносить/перенести transfer ﻴﻧﻘﻞ

Pay attention!

make up [verb]

to form by fitting together or assembling Matter is made up of elements.

consist of [phrasal verb]

to be formed or made up of (specified things)

Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called com- pounds.

Task 2. Listen, read and write in the notebook text.

Text All the chemical elements that make up plant and animal cells are found in na- ture. Today, chemists recognize 20 elements of Mendeleev's periodic system occuring in nature.

In living organisms, elements such as oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), iron (Fe). These elements are called macroelements.

They make up 99,59% of the cell mass.

Elements of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co), boron (B), zinc (Zn), fluorine (F), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) are called trace ele- ments. They are part of living organisms in very small quantities (m≥0.01%). Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities.

Table 1.1. Chemical elements found in animals and their approximate content (in weight percent).


Element Symbol Content, %

Oxygen O 62

Carbon С 20

Hydrogen H 10

Nitrogen N 3

Calcium Ca 2,5

Phosphorus P 1,0

Sulfur S 0,25

Potassium K 0,25

Chlorine Cl 0,2

Sodium Na 0,10

Magnesium Mg 0,07

Iodine I 0,01

Iron Fe 0,01

99,59 Trace elements

Copper Cu

Manganese Mn

Molybdenum Mo

Cobalt Co

Boron B

Zinc Zn

Fluorine F

Selenium Se

Chromium Cr

Chemical elements are part of inorganic compounds. Inorganic compounds include water, mineral salts, carbon dioxide, acids and bases. Organic compounds are proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids (fats) and lipoids. In addition to oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, some other elements can be included in their composition. Some proteins contain sulfur. The constituent part of the nucleic acids is phosphorus. The hemoglobin molecule contains iron, and magnesium is a part of chlorophyll.

Microelements play an important role in life processes. Iodine is an essential ingredient of a hormone thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland. Cobalt is an essential element of vitamin B12. The hormone insulin contains zinc. A copper-rich protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream and then to the cells of some fishes bodies.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercise 1. Complete the plan with the sentences.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

1. What macroelements do you know?

2. What is the role of macroelements in living nature?


3. What is microelements?

4. What microelements do you know?

5. What is the role of microelements?

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences.

1. The constituent part of the nucleic acids is … . 2. The hemoglobin molecule contains ... .

3. ... is an essential element of vitamin B12.

4. The hormone insulin contains ... .

5. ... is an essential ingredient of a hormone thyroxine.

Class 2. Inorganic compounds of the cell and water.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

solvent розчинник растворитель ,-и solvant ﻤﺬﻴﺐ

solution розчин раствор, -ы solution ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻞ

osmosis осмос осмос osmose ﺇﺴﻤﻮﺯ

osmotic pressure осмотичний тиск осмотическое давление tension osmotique ﻐﻃ ﺍﻹﺳﻤﻮﺯﻱﺍﻟﻀ

penetration проникнення проникновение envahissement ﺍﻠﺘﻐﻠﻐﻝ

semipermeable напівпрониклий полупроницаемый, -ая, -ое, -ые

hémiperméable ﺸﺑﻪ ﻣﻧﻔﺫ

salt сіль соль, -и sel ﻣﻟﺢ

plasma плазма плазма plasma ﺍﻠﺑﻼﺰﻣﺎ

irritability подразливість раздражимость irritabilité ﺍﻠﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻠﺘﻬﻴﺞ

ratio співвідношення соотношение, -ия quotient ﻧﺴﺑﺔ ﺘﻧﺎﺴﺏ ﺘﺭﺍﺑﻁ

concentration концентрація концентрация, -ии concentration ﺍﻠﺘﺮﮐﻴﺰ

buffer properties буферні властивості буферные свойства tampon caractères, ﺎﺼﻳﺔ ﺍﻠﺘﺧﻔﻴﻒﺧ

buffering буферність буферность effet tampon ﺍﻠﻘﺎﺒﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻠﺘﺨﻔﻒ

strength/stability міцність прочность solidité ﺍﻠﻠﻴﻮﻧﺔ

ion іон ион, -ы ion ﺍﻳﻮﻥ

cation катіон катион, -ы cation ﺃﻳﻮﻦ ﻣﻮﺠﺐ

anion аніон анион, -ы anio ﺃﻳﻮﻦ ﺴﺎﻟﺐ

bone tissue кісткова тканина костная ткань tissu osseux ﺍﻠﻧﺴﻴﺞﺍﻠﻌﻇﻣﻲ

evaporation випаровування испарение, -ия vaporisation ﺍﻠﺗﺑﺧﺭ

hydrogen index pH водневий показник водородный показатель (PH)

indice pH ﺍﻠﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺮﻮﺠﻴﻧﻲ

Pay attention!

form [verb]

to organize or arrange

Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ionic co mpounds, or salts.

perform [verb] (do)

To do an action or piece of work

In extracellular fluids and in blood, the role of the buffer is performed by Н2СО3 and НСО3


Task 2. Listen and repeat text.

Text Water is one of the most common substance on Earth. It covers most of the Earth's surface and is the main component of cells of living organisms.


The water averages about 80% of the body weight. Water molecules have a special structure and can be linked to each other by hydrogen bonds. Therefore, water has a number of properties that are very important for living organisms.

Water is a good solvent. The most of the biochemical reactions in the cell can take place only in aqueous solution.

A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a solution. The dissolving agent of a solution is the solvent, and the sub- stance that is dissolved is the solute. An aqueous solution is one in which water is the solvent.

Water as a solvent takes part in the phenomena of osmosis. Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane in- to region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the so- lute concentrations on the two sides a solution of a substance towards a higher con- centration.

Water cools the body by evaporation.

Most of the inorganic substances of the cell are in the form of salts. The cell contains many potassium ions (K +) and very few sodium ions (Na +). In extracellu- lar environment (for example, in blood plasma) on the contrary - many sodium ions and few potassium ions. The irritability of the cell depends on the ratio of the concen- trations of ions Na +, K +, Ca2 +, Mg2 + on both sides of the membrane. The concen- tration of salts depends on the osmotic pressure in the cell and its buffer properties.

Buffering is the ability of a cell to maintain an slightly alkaline reaction of its contents at a constant level. Buffering inside the cell is provided by the Н2РО4-

and НРО42-

anions. In extracellular fluids and in blood, the role of the buffer is performed by Н2СО3 and НСО3-. Anions of weak acids and weak acids bind hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions (ОН-). Therefore, the reaction within the cell and in extracellular flu- ids does not change in practice and depends on the pH of the environment. Insoluble mineral salts give a strength to bone tissue.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercises1. Make a text plan.

Exercises 2. Answer the questions.

1. What are the main properties of water and its importance to life?

2. What is osmosis?

3. In what form are the inorganic substances in the cell?

4. What cations and anions are contained in the cell?

5. What cations and anions are contained in the extracellular environment?

6. On what ions depends cell irritability?

7. What is buffering?

8. Which ions act as buffers in the cell and in the extracellular environment?

Exercises 3. Complete the sentences.

1. … is one of the most common substance on Earth.

2. Water molecules have a special structure and can be linked to each other by ... .


3. Osmosis is ... . 4. Buffering is ... .

5. Insoluble mineral salts give a strength ... .

6. A liquid that a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a … .

Class 3. Organic compounds of the cell.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

amino acid амінокислота аминокислота, -ы aminoacide ﺍﻠﺤﻣﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﻧﻲ

peptide bond пептидний зв’язок пептидная связь liaison peptidique

ﺍﻠﺮﺍﺑﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﺗﻳﺩﻳﺔ constructional


будівельний строительный, -ая, -ое, -ые du bâtiment ﺍﻠﺑﻧﺎﺌﻲ

enzyme фермент, -ти фермент, -ы (энзим, -ы) ferment ﺃﻧﺯﻴﻢ

fermentative ферментативний ферментативный, -ая, -ое, -ые enzymatiqu ﺍﻷﻧﺯﻴﻤﻴﺔ locomotive


руховий двигательный, -ая, -ое, -ые cinétique ﻧﺎﻗﻠﻲﺣﺮﮐﻲ transport траспортний транспортный, -ая, -ое, -ые de transport ﻧﺎﻗﻠﻲ contractile скоротливий сократительный, -ая, -ое, -ые contractile ﺇﻧﻘﺑﺎﻀﻲ protective захисний защитный, -ая, -ое, -ые défensif ﺤﺎﻢ، ﻮﺍﻖ، ﺪﻔﺎﻋﻲ

antibody антитіло антитело, -а anticorps ﺟﺴﻢ ﻤﺿﺎﺪ

antigen антиген антиген, -ы antigène ﺟﺴﻢ ﻏﺭﻴﺐ

breakdown розщеплення расщепление, -ия bifidité ﺍﻹﻧﺤﻼﻝ

lipids ліпід липид, -ы lipide ﺍﻠﺩﻫﻧﻳﺎﺖ،ﺍﻠﻠﻴﺑﻴﺪﺍﺖ

lipoid ліпоїд липоид, -ы lipoïde ﺩﻫﻧﻳﺎﺖ، ﺸﺣﻤﻴﺎﺖ

steroid стероїд стероид, -ы stéroïdes ﺍﻠﺳﻳﺘﺮﻭﻴﺩﺍﺖ

cholesterol холестерин холестерин cholestérol ﻜﻮﻠﺳﺗﺮﻭﻞ

excess надлишок избыток excès ﻔﺎﺌﺾ، ﺯﺍﺋﺪ

specific специфічний специфический, -ая, -ое, -ие spécifique ﻧﻮﻋﻲ

cortisone кортизон кортизон cortisone ﮐﻮﺭﺗﻳﺯﻮﻥ

gallstone жовчні каміння желчные камни cholélithe ﺤﺼﻮﺓ ﺼﻔﺭﺍﻮﻳﺔ

hormone гормон гормон, -ы hormone ﻫﺮﻣﻭﻦ

deactivate знезаражувати

знезаразити обезвреживать/обезвредить neutraliser ﺃﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻠﺗﻟﻭﺚ

neutralize нейтралізувати нейтрализовать neutraliser ﻴﻌﺎﺪﻞ

glycerol гліцерин глицерин glycérine ﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﻥ

Pay attention!

store [verb]

keep or accumulate (something) for future use

Plants store starch as granules within cellular structures called plastids.

Task 2. Listen and repeat text.

Text Organic compounds include proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and fats.

Proteins are high molecular weight biopolymers. Their monomers are amino acids. Living organisms use about 20 amino acids. Two amino acids are combined into one molecule using a peptide bond.

Proteins are polypeptides that contain dozens and hundreds of amino acids.

By their composition, proteins are divided into two main classes - simple and complex. Simple proteins consist of only amino acids.

O H ║ │

- С - N- .


Complex proteins, except amino acids, have lipids, carbohydrates, metal ions, and phosphorus in their composition.

Proteins perform different functions in cells. One of the most important is the building function: proteins participate in the formation of all cell membranes and cell organelles. The fermentative property of proteins is of great importance. Enzymes ac- celerate the biochemical reactions taking place in the cell many times. The motor function is provided by special contractile proteins. These proteins are involved in all types of movement.

The transport function of proteins is to attach chemical elements or biologically active substances (hormones) and transfer them to the tissues and organs of the body.

The protective function of proteins is expressed in the production of specific proteins, which are called antibodies. Antibodies bind and neutralize foreign substances. The organism recognizes a foreign substance by the reaction between the antigens of this substance and the antibodies of the given organism. An antigen is any substance (which usually contains a protein) that can induce an immune reaction. Proteins are a source of energy. With the complete cleavage of 1 g of proteins, 17.6 kJ energy is re- leased (4.2 kcal)

Carbohydrates are organic substances with the general formula (СН2О)n. In the animal cell, there are 1-5% carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are called monosaccharides. Complex carbohydrates are called polysaccharides. Monomers of polysaccharides of starch, glycogen and cellulose are glucose monosaccharide.

Carbohydrates are organic substances with the general formula (СН2О)n. In the animal cell, there are 1-5% carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates perform two main functions: construction and energy. Cellulose forms the walls of plant cells. Complex polysaccharide chitin performs construction function in fungi and arthropods. Carbohydrates play the role of the main source of energy in the cell. During the oxidation of 1 g of carbohydrates, 17.6 kJ of energy (4.2 kcal) is released. Starch in plants and glycogen in animals is stored in cells.

Lipids (fats) are compounds of high molecular weight fatty acids and trihydric glycerol alcohol. Fats are a source of energy in the body and give it twice as much as carbohydrates. Fats are part of cytoplasmic membranes, nuclear envelope, myelin sheaths. The fat layer protects the animals from loss of heat and water. Lipids are part of the intermediate layer of cytoplasmic membranes. In a large number of lipids are contained in the cells of the nervous tissue of animals.

Steroids are lipids that have a cyclic structure. Steroids include a number of hormones (cortisone, sex hormones). Steroid cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes in animals. But excess cholesterol in the body can lead to the for- mation of gallstones and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Nucleic acids are complex organic compounds that have very large molecules, which include monosaccharides (ribose and deoxyribose), nitrogenous bases (ade- nine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uracil) and phosphoric acid.

Two types of nucleic acids are known: deoxyribonucleic (DNA) and ribonucle- ic (RNA). They got their name from monosaccharides, which are included in their composition: DNA is deoxyribose, and in RNA - ribose. DNA is contained in the nu-


cleus of the cell, and RNA is in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. DNA and RNA re- tain (store) and transmit hereditary information for specific proteins and other cell substances. DNA is the carrier of hereditary information.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercises1. Answer the questions.

1. What organic substances are included in the cell?

2. What structure do proteins have?

3. What are the functions of the proteins in the cell?

4. What structure do lipids have?

5. What are the functions of carbohydrates in the cell?

6. What structure do carbohydrates have?

7. What are the functions of the lipids in the cell?

8. What types of nucleic acids do you know?

9. What are the functions of the nucleic acids in the cell?

Exercises 2. Fill the table below.

Brief characteristics of main groups of organic compounds

Group Role in living organisms

а) ... 1. The main source of energy.

2. Support function in plants.

b) ... 1. Components of biological membranes.

2. The form of energy storage.

3. Hormones.

c) Protein 1.


d) ... 1.


Class 4. Structure of the cell.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

metabolism обмін речовин обмен веществ (метаболизм) métabolisme ﴾ﺾﻳﻷﺍ﴿ﺪﺍﻭﻣﻟﺍ ﻞﺪﺎﺑﺘ semipermeable напівпроникливість полупроницаемость semi-

perméabilité ﺸﺑﻪ ﻧﻔﺎﺫﻳﺔ

capacity здатність способность, -и faculté ﻗﺩﺭﺓ

overleap пропускати/пропустити пропускать/пропустить tréfiler ﺴﻣﺢ ﺒﺎﻠﻣﺭﻮﺭ limit/restrict обмежити ограничивать/ограничить restreindre ﻴﺣﻴﻂ، ﻴﺤﺪﺪ

injury пошкодження повреждение, -ия altération ﺇﺘﻼﻒ

regulate регулювати регулировать régler ﺿﺑﻄ، ﻧﻆﻢ، ﻧﺴﻕ

admission надходження поступление, -ия admission ﺇﻠﺗﺤﺎﻖ

enter вводити/ввести вводить/ввести injecter ﺃﺪﺧﻞ

connect/join з’єднувати/з’єднати соединять/соединить accoler ﻴﺿﻡ

phagocytosis фагоцитоз фагоцитоз phagocytose ﻔﺠﻮﺓ

colloidal solution

колоїдний розчин коллоидный раствор solution colloïdale

ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻞ ﻏﺭﻮﻱ make/commit здійснювати/здійснити совершать/совершить commettre ﺃﻧﺟﺯ، ﺃﺘﻢ

intensity інтенсивність интенсивность intensité ﺍﻠﺗﺭﮐﻴﺯ

separate відділяти/відділити отделять/отделить séparer ﻳﻔﺼﻞ

strip стрічка полоска, -и bandelette ﻤﺧﻄﻄ

pore, porus пора пора, -ы lacune ﻤﻮﺴﻢ، ﻔﺼﻞ

nucleoplasm нуклеоплазма нуклеоплазма nucléoplasme ﺑﻼﺯﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﺍﺓ


nucleolus ядерце ядрышко, -и plasmosome ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻴﺔ

chromatin хроматин хроматин chromatine ﮐﺭﻭﻣﺎﺗﻴﻥ

chromosome хромосома хромосома, -ы chromosome ﮐﺭﻮﻣﻭﺴﻮﻢ

gene ген ген, -ы gène ﺟﻴﻥ

penetrate проникати/проникнути проникать/проникнуть infiltrer ﻴﻐﻟﻐﻞ

pinocytosis піноцитоз пиноцитоз pinocytose ﺒﻠﻌﻣﺔ

semifluid напіврідкий полужидкий, -ая, -ое, -ие fluide ﻤﺎﺋﻊ

cyclosis циклоз циклоз cyclose ﺍﻟﺣﺮﮐﺔ ﺍﻠﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻳﺔ

Pay attention!

compose [verb]

(of elements) constitute or make up (a whole, or a specified part of it) A nucleotide is itself composed of three parts.

Task 2. Listen and repeat text.

Text Membranes of plants and animals are fundamental to the organization of the cell. In general, biological membranes consist of a double layer of phospholipids and other lipids. Diverse proteins are embedded in this lipid bilayer or attached to its sur- faces. Through it, there is a metabolism between the cell and the environment. An important property of the cytoplasmic membrane is semipermeability.

Semipermeability is the ability of a cell membrane to pass through itself only certain molecules and ions of matter.

Plant cells have a protective cellulose membrane that performs a mechanical function, and animal cells have only a plasmalemma.

The main functions of the outer membrane are to limit the internal environment of the cell, protect it from damage, regulate the flow of ions and molecules, remove metabolic products and synthesized substances, connect cells to each other and form tissues.

Through the outer membrane, large particles (exocytosis) and liquid drops (pi- nocytosis) enter the cell. In microorganisms, the absorption of large particles is called phagocytosis.

Under the plasma membrane, there is the main part of the cell - the cytoplasm.

It is a colloidal solution of proteins, fats and nucleic acids. The cytoplasm is in the semi-liquid (gel) state and makes circular motions - cyclosis. The intensity of cyclosis depends on the temperature, the amount of water and other factors. The metabolism takes place in the cytoplasm. The main function of the cytoplasm is to integrate into one and ensure the interaction of the nucleus and all cell organelles.

The nucleus is one of the most important components of the cell. From the cy- toplasm it is separated by a nuclear envelope, which consists of two three-layer membranes, between which is a narrow strip of semi-liquid substance.

Through the pores of the nuclear envelope, there is a metabolism between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Under the nuclear membrane is a nucleoplasm that contains one or more nu- cleoli, DNA, RNA and proteins.

The nucleolus has a rounded shape and sizes from 1 to 10 μm or more. It syn- thesizes RNA and contains ribosomal RNA.

The complex of DNA + the protein of the nucleus is called chromatin. Dur- ing the division of cells from chromatin, chromosomes are formed. Each species of


plants and animals has a constant number of chromosomes. The size and shape of chromosomes are characteristic for each species of man and animals.

In chromosomes, there are units of hereditary information - genes. Each gene controls the development of its hereditary trait. Genes are located in chromosomes in a certain order. Each gene takes its place (locus).

Most cells have one nucleus, but multinucleated cells also occur. The shape and size of the nuclei are diverse.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercises1. Make a text plan.

Exercises 2. Answer the questions.

1. What is cell membrane?

2. What functions does the cytoplasmic membrane perform?

3. What are the functions of cytoplasm?

4. What structure does the nucleus have?

5. What functions does the nucleus perform?

Exercises 3. Explain the meaning of the words:

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, cyclosis, semipermeability, gene, chromatin, exocytosis.

Class 5. Cell organelles.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

ендоплазматична сітка эндоплазматическая сеть réticulum endoplasmique

ﺍﻟﺸﺑﮑﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻮﺒﻼﺯﻣﻳﺔ

mitochondrion мітохондрія митохондрия mitochondrie ﻤﻳﺗﻮﮐﻧﺪﺭﻴﺎ

Golgi complex /apparatus

Гольджі комплекс сетчатый аппарат (аппарат Гольджи)

appareil de Golgi,

ﻡ ﺟﻮﻟﺟﻲﺃﺟﺴﺎ

ribosome рибосома рибосома ribosome ﺍﻠﺮﺍﻴﺒﻮﺳﻮﻤﺎﺖ

lysosome лізосома лизосома lysosome ﺍﻠﻠﻳﺯﻮﺳﻮﻤﺎﺖ

centrosome центросома центросома corpuscule



invaginations інвагінації инвагинации intussusception

rugged/rough шорсткий шероховатый squarreux ﺨﺸﻦ

smooth гладкий гладкий glabre ﻧﺎﻋﻡ

canal/channel канал канал canal ﻗﻧﺎﺓ

cavity порожнина полость cavité ﺠﻮﻒ

granular гранулярний гранулярный granulaire ﺤﺑﻳﺑﻲ

accumulate накопичувати накапливать/накопить accumuler ﺍﺩﺧﺭ، ﺠﻤﻊ

kernel/grain зерно зерно grain ﺣﺑﺔ، ﺑﺯﺭﺓ

achromatin spindle

ахроматинове веретино ахроматиновое веретено fuseau achromatique

ﺨﻳﻮﻄ ﻣﻐﺯﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻠﺷﮑﻞ

pole полюс полюс pôle ﻗﻂﺐ

separation розходження расхождение désunion ﺍﻹﻧﺸﻃﺎﺭ

fiber нитка нить fibre ﺣﺑﻞ، ﺧﻳﻁ

myofibril міофібрила миофибрилла myofibrille ﻠﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﻀﻟﻴﺔ

neurofibril нейрофібрила нейрофибрилла neurofibrille ﻠﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﺼﺑﻳﺔ

conduction проведення проведение conduction ﺸﻖ، ﻣﺩ، ﺃﻧﺠﺯ

impulse імпульс импульс impact ﺍﻠﻧﺑﺾ

provide забезпечувати/забезпечити обеспечивать/обеспечить accommoder ﺿﻣﻥ، ﺃﻣﻥ، ﻮﻔﺭ


Pay attention!

Separation [mass noun]

the action or state of moving or being moved apart

Microtubules are responsible for the separation of chromosomes during cell division.

Task 2. Listen and repeat text.

Text The cell contains the following organelles: endoplasmic reticulum, mitochon- dria, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrosome, special organelles.

Mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion) can vary greately in both size (0.5 micrometers - 10 micrometers) and number (1 - over 1000) per cell. They have a double membrane: external and internal. The inner membrane forms cristae (invagi- nations). In the cavity of the mitochondria there are semi-liquid soluble proteins - en- zymes (matrix), mitochondrial DNA, and ribosomes.

The main function of mitochondria is the synthesis of ATP - biological energy.


1-outer membrane;

2-inner membrane;


Ribosomes have linear size of 0.015 micron. They consist of two subunits:

large and small. Each subunit comprises one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mole- cules and a variety of ribosomal proteins. Ribosomes are involved in the synthesis of protein molecules.

The endoplasmic reticulum (reticulum - network) is a special system of membranes. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum:

- rough (granular);

- smooth (agranular).

On the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) ribosomes are attached, which synthesize protein. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is a net- work of fine tubular membrane vesicles, that is involved in the synthesis and storage of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, which are used in the production of new cellular membrane. Thus, the endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the syn- thesis of proteins, lipids and in the transfer of synthesis products to different parts of the cell.

The Golgi apparatus or complex consists of cisterns, tubules and vesicles (bubbles). It looks like an endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus or complex is the center of accumulation, packing and release of various substances (enzymes, hormones).


The products of cell synthesis and substances that come from the external envi- ronment, move through the channels of the endoplasmic reticulum into the net appa- ratus and accumulate there.

Golgi complex



Lysosome is an organelle that contains digestive enzymes that break down proteins, polysaccharides, nu- cleic acids, fats, and other organic substances.

Plant cells also have plastids and vacuoles with cell sap.

The centrosome or cell center can be seen in all animal cells and in some low- er plants. Its size is from 0.4 to 0.9 microns.

A centrosome consists of one or two small bodies – centrioles.

The centrosome is involved in the formation of the achromatin spindle (mitotic apparatus), which provides the movement of chromosomes to the opposite poles of

the cell.

Some orga- nelles are character- istic only for the special functions of the cells - these are cilia and flagella that perform the functions of move- ment and protec- tion.

They are the means by which many microscopic unicellular and multicellular organisms move from place to place. The muscle cells contain special organelles - myofibrils. Under the action of myofibrils, muscle contraction occurs. Some cells contain neurofibrils. They are involved in conducting nerve impulses.

Scheme of the cell structure

А- animal cell;

B- plant cell.

1-cell membrane;



4- Golgi complex;

5- nucleus membrane;








13-cell wall;


Task 3. Do the exercises.


Exercises1. Answer the questions.

1. What are the different organelles that make up our cells?

2. What is the structure of mitochondria, what function do they perform?

3. What is the structure of Golgi complex, what function does it perform?

4. What is the structure of ER, what function does it perform?

5. What is the structure of ribosomes, what function do they perform?

6. What is the function of the centrosome?

7. What organelles perform only special cell functions?

Exercises 2. Fill up the table.

Structure Function

Cell membrane Nucleus

Chromosomes Nucleolus Mitochondria Ribosomes ER

Golgi complex Lysosome

Exercises 3. Draw a cell, show its organelles in the picture.

Class 6. Laboratory work №2

"Cell structure"

Class 7. Cell division Mitosis.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

massed/numerous багаточисельний многочисленный multiple ﻤﺘﻌﺪﺪ

multiple багаторазовий многократный multiple ﻤﺘﮑﺮﺮ

differentiation диференціація дифференциация différenciation ﺘﻤﺎﻴﺯ، ﺘﺑﺎﻴﻦ، ﺘﻔﺎﻮﺖ

die off відмирати отмирать s'atrophier ﺘﻼﺸﻲ

disappear зникати исчезать se dissiper ﻳﺧﺘﻔﻲ

substitute заміщати замещать remplacer ﺍﺒﺪﻞ، ﻋﻮﺾ

mitosis мітоз митоз mitose ﺍﻹﻧﻘﺴﺎﻢ ﺍﻠﻣﻴﺘﻭﺯﻱ

meiosis мейоз мейоз méiose ﺍﻹﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻠﻤﻴﻮﺯﻱ

amitosis амітоз амитоз amitose ﴾ﺮﺷﺎﺑﻤ ﺭﺎﻄﺸﻧﺇ﴿ﺯﻭﺘﻳﻤﺃ

continuous безперервний непрерывный continu ﻤﺘﻮﺍﺼﻞ، ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ

set набір набор paraison ﻁﻘﻢ

spiralization спіралізація спирализация spiralisation ﺤﻠﺯﻮﻧﻴﺔ

prolonged/continual довготривалий продолжительный isochrone ﻣﺴﺘﻣﺮ achromatin spindle ахроматинове



веретено fuseau


ﺨﻳﻮﻂ ﻤﻐﺯﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺷﮑﻞ

interphase інтерфаза интерфаза interphase ﺍﻟﻃﻮﺮ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﻧﻲ

prophase профаза профаза prophase ﺍﻟﻃﻮﺮ ﺍﻟﺗﻣﻬﻴﺩﻱ

metaphase метафаза метафаза métaphase ﺍﻟﻃﻮﺮ ﺍﻠﻭﺴﻳﻂ

anaphase анафаза анафаза anaphase ﺍﻟﻃﻮﺮﺍﻹﻧﻔﺼﺎﻠﻲ

telophase телофаза телофаза télophase ﺍﻟﻂﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺮ


equator екватор экватор équateur ﺧﻂ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻮﺍﺀ mitotic cycle мітотичний


митотический цикл

mitotique circuit

ﻳﺔﺪﻮﺮﺓ ﻣﻐﺯﻠ

karyokinesis каріокінез кариокинез caryocinèse ﺇﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻠﻧﻮﺍﺓ

cytokinesis цитокінез цитокинез cytokinèse ﺇﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻠﺴﺘﻭﺒﻼﺯﻢ

Pay attention!

Arise [verb] arise from/out of Occur as a result of

New cells arise from preexisting cell by mitosis division.

Task 2. Listen and repeat text.

Text According to the cell theory, all the cells are the results of the division of pre- existing cells. A unicellular organism is divided, forming two new cells. A multicel- lular organism begins its development from a single cell. All its numerous cells are formed as a result of multiple cell divisions. First, cell division occurs, then they dif- ferentiate according to their functions. Tissues are made from cells of a similar type.

Organs are made from tissues, and systems are made from several organs working together. In a living organism, old cells die and are replaced by new ones. Thus, the body grows and develops.

There are three types of cell division: 1) mitosis - indirect division; 2) meiosis - reduction division; 3) amitosis - direct division.

More complex cell division is mitosis. 99% of all cells divide by mitosis. In mitosis a cell divides to form two identical daughter cells. It is important that the daughter cells have copies of every parental chromosome.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the mother) divides to pro- duce two new cells (the daughters). As a result of mitosis, two genetically identical daughter cells are formed with the same set of chromosomes as in the parent cell.

Mitosis is a continuous process that consists of four phases.

1. Prophase is the longest phase of mitosis. The nucleolus and the nucle- ar membrane disappear, chromosomes are spiralized, an achromatin (mi- totic) spindle is formed.

2. Metaphase - the mitotic spindle is formed, the chromosomes are located at the equator of the cell.

3. Anaphase is the shortest phase of mitosis. Daughter chromatids be- come chromosomes and diverge towards the opposite poles of the cell.


4. Telophase - chromosomes diverge to the poles of the cell and then despiralized. A nuclear membrane appears around each set of chromosomes. The division of the nucleus ends. The division of the cytoplasm occurs.

The period between cell divisions is called interphase. The peri- od of interphase includes the following events: cell growths, chromosome doubling, tubulin protein synthesis, chromosome reduplication. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids that are connected by a centromere.

As a result of mitosis, two daughter cells are formed with the same set of chromosomes as the parent cell.

The complex of mitosis processes is called mitotic division. The period from one cell division to another, which includes mitosis and the interphase period is called the cell cycle.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What is mitosis?

2. What is a cell cycle?

3. What is the structure of chromosomes?

4. What happens in the interphase?

5. What is the longest phase of mitosis? What happens in this phase?

6. What happens in anaphase of mitosis?

7. What happens in telophase of mitosis?

Exercise 2. Draw a scheme of mitosis.

Exercise 3. Arrange mitosis events in chronological order:

а) chromosomes condense: the nuclear membrane disappears;

b) spindle forms;

c) chromosomes double;

d) chromosomes placed at opposite poles of the cell;

e) chromosomes are arranged along the equator;

f) cytoplasm is divided.


Class 8. Cell division. Meiosis. Amitosis.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

reduction редукційний редукционный détendeur... ﺘﺨﻔﻳﺾ، ﺨﺎﻔﺾ

decrease зменшення уменьшение décroissance ﺘﻘﻟﻳﻞ

increase збільшення увеличение accroissement ﺘﮑﺑﻳﺮ

diploid диплоїдний диплоидный diploïde ﺯﻮﺠﻲ

haploid гаплоїдний гаплоидный haploïde ﺃﺤﺎﺪﻱ

locate розташовуватися располагаться disposer ﺻﻒ، ﺭﺗﺐ

chromatid хроматида хроматида chromatide ﮐﺮﻮﻣﺎﺘﻳﺪ

convergence зближення сближение rapprochement ﺇﻗﺘﺮﺍﺐ

conjugation кон’югація конъюгация conjugaison ﴾ﻲﺴﻧﺠﻠﺍ ﺭﺛﺎﮑﺘﻠﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻮﻧ﴿ ﻥﺍﺭﺘﻗﺇ

crossing-over кросинговер кроссинговер crossing-over ﻋﺑﻭﺭ، ﺘﻌﺎﺒﺭ

tetrad тетрада тетрада tétrade ﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ

centromere центромера центромера cinétochore ﴾ﻢﻮﺴﻭﻣﻮﺭﮑﻠﺍ ﻥﻣ ﻕﻳﻀﺗﻣﻟﺍ


centriole центріоль центриоль corpuscule central ﺍﻟﺴﻧﺘﺮﻳﻮﻞ

bivalent бівалент бивалент bivalent ﻧﺼﻔﻲ

homologous гомологічний гомологичный homologue ﺘﻣﺎﺛﻞ، ﺘﻧﺎﻅﺭ

region ділянка участок aire ﻗﻁﺎﻉ، ﺟﺯﺀ

area/plane площина плоскость plan ﻣﺴﺗﻮﻯ

paired парний парный bigéminé ﺯﻮﺠﻲ

split/separate розділятися разделяться se ramifier ﺇﻧﻘﺴﻢ، ﺍﻧﺷﻂﺭ

constriction перетяжка перетяжка étranglement ﺷﺪ، ﺴﺤﺐ

maternal cell материнська клітина материнская клетка maternel ﺧﻠﻳﺔ ﺃﻢ daughter cell дочірня клітина дочерняя клетка cellule fille ﺧﻟﻳﺔ ﻭﻠﻴﺩﺓ

cartilage хрящ хрящ cartilage ﻏﻀﺮﻮﻒ

tendon сухожилля сухожилие tendon ﻮﺘﺭ

liver печінка печень foie ﮐﺒﺪ

leukocyte лейкоцит лейкоцит leucocyte ﮐﺭﻳﺔ ﺪﻢ ﺒﻳﻀﺎﺀ

Pay attention!

Disappear [verb] (not see) to become impossible to see

The nuclear membrane and nucleolus both disappear during prophase of mitosis and meiosis.

Task 2. Listen and read text.

Text Meiosis is the special type of recombinative and reductive cell division occur- ring only in the generation of the gametes or germ cells (eggs and sperm) and in the formation of spores in plants.

In the process of meiosis, the number of chromosomes in the gametes is halved. Gametes contain two times less chromosomes than all other cells in the body.

During fertilization, the number of chromosomes doubles as a result of fusion of sperm and eggs.

In meiosis, four male haploid cells are formed from a single diploid cell. Dur- ing meiosis, two types of division occur: meiosis I and meiosis II. In the first meiotic division, the number of chromosomes is halved. Such a division is called reduction.

The first meiotic division consists of four phases: prophase I, metaphase I, an- aphase I, telophase I.

The most complex changes occur in prophase I.

Homologous chromosomes (identical in size and shape) are parallel to each other, then get closer and contact. This process is called conjugation.


Conjugating chromosomes are called bivalents or tetrads. Each bivalent con- sists of four chromatids that are connected by one centromere.

The centrosome is divided into two centrioles, which begin to move to oppo- site poles of the cell. A fission spindle is formed between centrioles, which consists of microtubules. Then the nuclear envelope is fragmented in the cell.

The homologous chromosomes diverge from each other, intersect with other chromatids and form chiasmas. Chiasma is the place of connection of chromatids of different chromosomes. There is an exchange of homologous regions of chromo- somes - genes. The exchange process is called crossing-over.

At the end of prophase I, chromosomes thicken and spiralize, and chromatids are connected to each other only at several points.

In metaphase I, bivalents of chromosomes are located in the equatorial plane.

The spindle division is forming.

In anaphase I, bivalents begin to divide into homologous chromosomes, each of which consists of two chromatids. Homologous chromosomes diverge to the oppo- site poles of the cell. Thus, in this phase there is a reduction in the number of chro- mosomes by half (reduction).

The telophase I is the shortest phase of the first meiotic division. The nuclei of daughter cells with a haploid set of chromosomes are formed.

Cytokinesis does not always follow telophase, and the second meiotic division begins immediately.

Meiosis II occurs as a type of mitosis and is called equational division.

This type of division also has four phases: prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II.

In prophase II, the nucleus contains a haploid set of chromosomes and each chromosome consists of two chromatids.

In metaphase II, chromosomes are located at the equator of the cell and the achromatin spindle is formed.

In anaphase II, paired chromatids diverge towards the opposite poles of the cell.

In telophase II, chromosomes despiralize. A nuclear membrane forms around them, and a nucleolus appears in the nucleus.


First meiotic division Second meiotic division

Prophase I Prophase II


Metaphase I Metaphase II

Anaphase I Anaphase II

Telophase I Telophase II

Amitosis is a direct cell division characterized by simple cleavage of the nu- cleus without the formation of chromosomes. Amitosis begins with the division of the nucleus, and then the cytoplasm of the cell. At the beginning of the division, the nu- cleus is drawn out and a constriction is formed on it, which divides the nucleus in half. Amitosis occurs without formation of spindle fibres. Amitosis is a direct divi- sion of a relatively small percentage of cells.

When nuclei are divided into several nuclei, multinucleated cells are formed, and when cells are fused, symplasts (the inner side of the plasma membrane) are formed.

As a result of amitosis, daughter cells are formed from the mother cell without alter- ing cellular structures.


1 - nucleus;

2 - cytoplasm;

3 – constriction.

Amitosis is a type of asexual reproduction, which occurs in unicellular organ- isms such as bacteria, protozoans, pathological cells, old cells, mammalian cartilage cells as well as in fetal membranes, unicellular fungi like yeast. Amitosis is found in both single-celled and multi-cellular animals and plants. For example, in animals, amitosis occurs in the liver.


Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What is meiosis?

2. What is formed during meiosis?

3. What happens during the reduction division?

4. What is conjugation?

5. What is crossing-over?

6. What is chiasma?

7. What chromosomes are called homologous?

8. What happens in anaphase I?

9. What happens during equational division?

10. What happens in telophase II of meiosis?

11. From where do new cells arise?

12. What happens as a result of cell differentiation?

13. What types of cell division do you know?

14. What is amitosis?

15. What happens in the amitosis process?

Exercise 2. Explain the meaning of the words:

conjugation, crossing over, chiasma, chromatid, bivalent chromosomes.

Exercise 3. Draw a scheme of meiosis.

Class 9. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

spermatogenesis сперматогенез сперматогенез spermatogenèse ﻋﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﮑﻮﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺣﻳﻭﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻠﻣﻧﻭﻳﺔ

oogenesis оогенез оогенез oogenèse ﻮﻴﺔﻋﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﮑﻮﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻴﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜ

spermatogonia сперматогонії сперматогонии cellule spermatique

ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻧﻭﻴﺔ

oocyte ооцит ооцит ovocyte ﺧﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻴﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻴﺔ

polar body полярні тільця полярные тельца corpuscule polaire

ﺟﺳﻴﻢ ﻗﻁﺑﻲ

subsequent/following наступний последующий subséquent ﻻﺤﻖ، ﺁﺖ

reach досягати/досягнути достигать/достигнуть atteindre ﺑﻟﻎ ﺍﻠﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻟﻰ

embryo зародок зародыш embryon ﺠﻧﻴﻦ

Pay attention!

Fuse [verb] [no object] (of group of cellular structure) join or coalesce

Fertilization occurs when the nucleus of both a sperm and an egg fuse to form a dip- loid cell, known as zygote.

Task 2. Listen and read text.


Text Eggs and spermatozoa are gametes containing half (haploid, n) set of chromo- somes compared to somatic cells. When the egg cell is fused with the sperm cell in the fertilized egg, the normal (diploid, 2n) set of chromosomes is restored.

Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division of the cell nucleus that reduces the chromosome number by half the original amount of genetic information. Thus, in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms, this stage is necessary because the number of chromosomes in the body with each generation would be doubled.

Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of spermatozoa. The cells of the testes of the male genital glands, from which sperm cells are formed, are called spermatogonia. Spermatogonia are transformed into spermatocytes of the first order.

As a result of two subsequent meiotic divisions, second-order spermatocytes are formed first, and then spermatids. Spermatids mature and turn into spermatozoa.


Chromosome doubling; conjugation of homologous chromosomes

Spermatocytes of the 1st order Chromosome divergence

First meiotic division Spermatocytes of the 2st order

Second meiotic division Spermatids




Primary oocyte

First meiotic division

Secondary oocyte

1st polar body

Second meiotic division


2nd polar body


The process of formation of oocytes differs significantly from the process of formation of spermatozoa.

The process of formation of eggs is called oogenesis. During oogenesis, two meiotic divisions also occur. With each division, most of the cytoplasm moves into one of the daughter cells, which is called an oocyte. As a result of the first meiotic di- vision, a primary oocyte and one polar body (reduction body) are formed.

After the second meiotic division, one large egg cell and three small cells, the polar bodies, develop. The egg cell is the main source of nutrients, ribosomes, and other components of the cytoplasm necessary for the early stages of embryo devel- opment. The polar bodies are quickly dying.

Oogenesis results in one large cell (egg or ovum) and three small cells (polar bodies).

Thus, meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information.

Task 3. Do the exercises.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What happens when an egg is fused to a sperm cell?

2. What is spermatogenesis?

3. What happens during spermatogenesis?

4. What is oogenesis?

5. What happens during oogenesis?

Exercise 2. Complete these sentences.

Eggs and spermatozoa are gametes containing … (…, n) set of chromosomes com- pared to … cells. Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides … to produce … cells containing half the original amount of genetic information.


Class 10. General histology.

Task 1. Listen, repeat and read words and phrases:

histology гістологія гистология histologie ﻋﻟﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ

complex комплекс комплекс complexe ﻣﻌﻘﺪ

similar/analogous подібний сходный homologue ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻞ، ﺸﺒﻳﻪ

definite певний/визначений определенный déterminé ﻣﺤﺪﺪ، ﻣﻌﻳﻥ

integumentary покривний покровный tégumentaire ﴾ﻡﺴﺠﻠﺍ ﻲﻁﻐﻴ ﺎﻣ﴿ﺀﺎﻁﻏ sense organs органи чуття органы чувств les organes des sens ﺃﻋﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻠﺤﺲ epithelial tissue епітеліальна тканина эпителиальная


tissu épithélial ﻧﺴﻳﺞ ﻄﻼﺌﻲ

connective tissue сполучна тканина соединительная ткань

tissu conjonctif ﻧﺴﻳﺞ ﺿﺎﻢ

muscular tissue м’язова тканина мышечная ткань

tissu musculaire ﻧﺴﻳﺞ ﻋﺿﻠﻲ

nervous tissue нервова тканина нервная ткань tissu nerveux ﻧﺴﻳﺞ ﻋﺼﺒﻲ

Pay attention!

Bind [verb] (tie)

to tie something tightly, or to fasten things together Connective tissue binds other tissues of the body.

Act [verb] (do something) to take action

Tissue is a group of cell that act together to carry out a specific function in the body.

Task 2. Listen and read text.

Text The body of multicellular animals and humans consists of a large number of cells and extracellular substance, forming various tissues that form organs.

Complexes of cells and intercellular substance, similar in structure, function and origin, form certain types of tissue.

Human body tissue

Tissues are groups of cells and intercellular substances that have a similar structure and act together to perform a specific function.

Tissues form organs; groups of organs are organ systems. The following main organ systems are distinguished: bone (skeletal), muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory (urinary), reproductive, nervous, sensory system, endocrine, in- tegumentary (skin). Each tissue has its own characteristics, but in the body all tissues



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