Lviv Academy of Commerce (Ukraine) University of Bielsko-Biala (Republic of Poland)
Sumy State University (Ukraine)
Karaganda Economic University (Republic of Kazakhstan)
I.I. SVYDRUK, Yu.I. OSSIK O.V. PROKOPENKO
2 UDC 65.01(075.8)
BBC 65.290-2 S24
O.Y. Kuzmin — Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director of Institute of Economics and Management under the Lviv Polytechnic National University (Ukraine);
H.I. Bashnianyn — Doctor of Economics, Professor, Chair of the Department of Economic Theory of the Lviv Academy of Commerce (Ukraine);
A.A. Taubaev — Doctor of Economics, Professor, Chief expert in monitoring and development of scientific research of Karaganda Economic University (Republic of Kazakhstan);
N.A. Zaruba — Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of public and municipal administration of Kuzbass State Technical University, Member of the APSS, Honored Teacher of the Russian Federation.
Svydruk I.I., Ossik Yu.I., Prokopenko O.V.
Creative management: theoretical foundations. Monograph. — Chorzów : Drukarnia Cyfrowa, 2017. — 144 p.
In a modern dynamic life new unpredictable events occurring more and more, overthrowing, either bringing success and prosperity or breaking a course of life and activity of many people, organizations, countries, regions. Our unreadiness to perceive random nonprogrammable events is caused by that the result of traditional education is ability to logically reflect and analyze the information. In order to work successfully under the conditions of increase of unpredictability and discrepancy of social and economic development, it is necessary besides infological paradigm of perception of the world around to master the paradigm of comprehension and creative work.
In this creative management there are ways and methods of switching over of training of managers, engineers, entrepreneurs to level of constructive creative thinking and activity by way of combination of logic and heuristicity.
The monograph meant for under- and postgraduate students, doctoral candidates, management instructors and practitioners of management in the economic sphere, engineering personnel, everybody who wants to work actively and purposefully for prosperity of one’s organization and personality creative development. This is an original key to understanding of the present and vision of the future of a modern organization and socioeconomic development on the whole through activation of humane creative activity of the person.
UDC 65.01(075.8) BBC 65.290-2
©Svydruk I.I., Ossik Yu.I., ISBN 978-83-61429-07-4 Prokopenko O.V., 2017
1. Concept of creative management...
1.1. Creative management as a science and kind of activity...
1.2. Essence of creative work, creativity...
1.3. Interrelation of ability, giftedness and creative work...
1.4. Urgency of introduction of creative management in the activity of
enterprises and organizations...
2. Creative personality potential...
2.1. Concept and psychological structure of constructive creative potential of the person. Personality traits...
2.2. Creative act mechanism...
2.3. Kinds of creative thinking. Creative work and human thinking models...
3. Creative thinking of the person as unity of intellectual and
3.1. Creative activity and creative thinking of the person...
3.2. Intelligence and creative work...
3.3. Interaction of static and dynamic intelligence………...
4. Head as creative management leader…...
4.1. Head’s mentation characteristics...
4.2. Innovative management style formation...
4.3. Leadership in decision-making processes...
5. Methods for revealing problems and analyzing them...
5.1. Classification of problems...
5.2. Using complex systems theory in organization management...
5.3. Methods of statement and system analysis of administrative problems...
6. Management of ideas...
6.1. Methods for searching creative ideas...
6.2. Theory of inventive problems solution...
6.3. Classification of typical ways of searching solutions...
7 7 10 18
26 29 31
39 39 40 45
56 56 59 65 72 73 72 75 82 82 95 100
7. Management of creative solutions development at enterprises...
7.1. Features of managerial creative decisions...
7.2. Decisions, based on experience and judgments...
7.3. Intuitive solutions...
8. Bases of motivation towards creative work...
8.1. Head’s creative approach to motivation of employees…………...
8.2. Motivation of creative problem solutions, of generation and
implementation of new ideas...
8.3. Creative work as powerful motivation mean...
Be grown enough to behave childishly (instead of conclusion)...
Information about autors...
108 108 116 122
125 125 129 135 140 143
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
Albert Einstein At the beginning of the 21st century, according to experts in the field of scientific management, managers need to begin to think “outside the box,” generate and implement interesting ideas, that is, to think creatively as artists usually do. The notions of “creativity” and “creative work” are closely related.
Creativity — is the ability to generate new knowledge by expanding and transforming the vision of reality as the future that can systematically organize its activities, i.e., this is a creative construction. Creativity assumes a creative approach in designing new object properties using already existing elements (properties, relationships). The term “creativity” is closer to the original meaning of the word
Creativity is a wide-ranging topic, whose study is important for understanding mechanisms of development of both the individual and society.
At the personal level, the manager needs creative attitude in the course of management process, the expert — when solving problems dealing with performing direct duties. At the cultural and educational level, creativity — is manifestation of new trends in art, scientific discoveries and social programs.
The urgency of introduction of creative management in the practice of enterprises and organizations is obvious. When the main method of competition is innovation, all employees need an unconventional approach, especially those at departments dealing with any type of innovations:
technical and technological, organizational, those of range of goods, services, etc.
At present, the problem of determination, selection, and working-out appropriate efficient empirical research tools of creativity phenomenon in its various manifestations and at different levels of management of enterprises is foregrounded.
It should not only learn to manifest and measure the creativity, but also create conditions for its development. Thus it is important to determine and work out optimal ways for an active support and development of creative individuals at enterprises and organizations.
The manual is aimed to reveal the essence of creative management as a constructive science of management activity. To apply this knowledge in practice, contemporary managers need to know well how to reveal management problems, to
state them as well as system analysis methods, solution search methods, which are often implicit and atypical.
The questions of management of creative solutions development at the enterprise are considered comprehensively and include the study of their stages and kinds.
The head needs to pick thoroughly the staff, to study and know the creative potential of each employee as well as that of a group or collective on the whole. Because of it, such issues as personality traits, creative act mechanism, kinds of creative thinking, connection between intelligence and creative abilities are considered in the manual. The essence and structure of creative potential, system of organizational conditions and factors affecting its formation and development are described.
For the manager to be able to fully reveal his abilities, internal and external incentives are required. Questions of creative work motivation are paid a special attention in the manual. An innovative leader must purposefully influence a group of creative employees’ behavior, demonstrate original approaches to solution of problems and gradually change management culture and develop an innovative style. Considering the urgency of creative society formation, of determination of the ways for creative education conception formulation, managerial planning of creative training is considered in the manual.
1. Concept of creative management 1.1. Creative management as a science and kind of activity.
1.2. Essence of creative work, creativity.
1.3. Interrelation of ability, giftedness and creative work.
1.4. Urgency of introduction of creative management in the activity of enterprises and organizations.
1.1. Creative management as a science and kind of activity
Creative management — is rather new concept, being a separate branch of management science and professional activity, aimed at the development of organizations under modern conditions. Theoretical and applied aspects of the discipline can be distinguished. The theory of creative management is at the interface of innovation management, theory of creativity (which has many varieties — theory of scientific and technical, artistic and applied creativity) and a number of other scientific disciplines (Fig. 1.1). The theory of creative management began to develop roughly from the mid–20th century and only recently started to be realized in well- founded applied use of this knowledge.
There are different approaches to definition of the essence and content of creative management in the scientific literature. Some authors emphasize that creative management is one of innovation management directions and deal mainly with new kinds of products. It includes technical, marketing problems connected with innovations. Creative management contains the whole set of principles, methods and forms of management of the creative process, innovative activity and of the staff involved in it.
Managers were encouraged to be active because of passing to a qualitatively new level of scientific sphere development: they became active participants in the research, started to create resource and investment base of creative activity. So, applied aspects are connected, first of all, with innovations, that is, processes of development, introduction and operation of productive and economic and socio- organizational potential of the organization . Following a latent period, creative management, despite all difficulties of its formation, drew attention as actually existing field of knowledge. Its striking illustration is the introduction of the respective discipline in higher school educational process on the post-Soviet area (Russia, Ukraine) in the beginning of the 21st century. So, in Russia, the first presentation of creative management curriculum for economic and administrative institutes of higher learning took place in 1995.
Fig. 1.1. Creative management in the system of sciences
The subject of the discipline is creative process and mechanisms of its management. The object of creative management is the process of making management decisions by means of consecutive whole set of procedures, forming a general plan of creative process management. The goal of creative management — provision and keeping organization's competitive advantages by force of encouraging and promoting talents, personnel’s creative potential, introduction of innovative management technologies.
The objectives of this branch of management are: creation of effective creative groups of employees, generation of original ideas and their realization in new products and/or technologies for modernization and improvement of management processes.
Creative management deals with such key areas of organization’s activities as scientific, technical, personnel, production and marketing ones.
At the level of an ordinary production and commercial enterprise, creative management is a set of procedures, rules, principles, techniques, value orientations,
Creative activity motivation
Coordination of different levels of management processes
Situational management strategies
Innovation management experience
Personnel management and self-management
while achieving organizational goals and solving problems
HISTORY PHILOSOPHY and
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL
ART, ARTISTIC CREATIVITY
Incorporeal right Application and coordination of various thinking styles
organizational forms, connections and economic relations in order to achieve unconventional results of effective activities. Similarly to the conventional perception of general management, the control system of creative processes at the enterprise consists of two subsystems: controlling (agent of management) and controlled (object of management). The control action mechanism includes gathering, processing and transfer of necessary information and making respective decisions.
However, it is necessary to understand the difference in interaction between the mentioned subsystems. If in traditional management, boundaries between the functions of object and agent of management have just begun to disappear (and even then not in all kinds of activity), then in creative management, a number of functions of an agent and object of management draw closer up to identification.
The goal of creative management — to coordinate the functioning and interaction of both internal and external structural elements of the creative process, to create a new organizational culture. The division of the area of innovation and creative management are found in A.I. Prigozhin’s works [20, pp. 78–83], who specifies it by the following theses. From an organizational point of view, creative management problems consist in creation of temporary creative collectives to form a pool of new ideas, and innovation management concerns implementation of the most proper propositions and their commercialization. Creative management relies on Creativistics — a branch of knowledge about an efficient collective solution of creative problems, and innovation management — on Innovatics — a branch studying the formation of innovations and their distribution, as well as the ways to develop innovative solutions.
And both branches only now found their realization in a well-founded application of this knowledge in practical activities of production organizations.
Innovation management operates with an intellectual commodity as whole and indivisible, and conversely creative one — considers the given product, elementwise, as a complex entity. Management, connected with it by a new system of knowledge and skills, is divided into separate components, each of which is subjected to the study and comprehension in order to form right practical actions. Both innovative and creative management consider the same object, but innovative management — from the outer side, as a final completed object, and creative one — from the inner side, as a process of creation in dynamics.
Creative management implementation provides for:
monitoring of the scope of activity and prediction of its development;
development of ideas to be implemented in innovative activities plans;
coordination of activities of all departments in this area;
provision of an enterprise with skilled personnel and its motivation;
creation of special design groups;
evaluation of individual’s creative potential (for the possibility of involving in creative tasks solution);
creation of the atmosphere of creative work in the collective;
formation of groups of analytical experts to estimate ideas and proposals in the sphere of innovation policy;
defining heuristic methods and techniques (according to authors, heuristics is a branch of knowledge about person’s efficient creative thinking) for effective performance of creative tasks by experts.
At that, creative management borrows purposes and resource constraints from innovation management which ensures the functioning of a respective support system (infrastructure). The creative nature of activities is manifested to a greater extent in creative management than in innovation one, and conversely the purposiveness of activities — shows itself more in innovation management than in creative one.
The whole set of kinds of activity is formed in general management functions:
definition of the mission and goals, planning, decision-making, organizing, motivation, and control. The composition of functions and management problems can be regulated depending on the level of a controlled system (economy on the whole, a branch of production, an organization, an enterprise or a separate project), as well as on internal and external conditions of its operation. Each general function is divided into specific ones related to peculiarities of the enterprise: definition of research purposes, creative work planning, rationalization activity motivation and so on.
Creative management studies psychological, managerial, sociological, economic, historical and cultural factors affecting the process of creative work.
Thus, creative management in the broader sense — this is a complex mechanism of interaction between controlling and controlled systems in order to create favorable conditions and opportunities for creative development and achieving an effective result by the organization.
1.2. Essence of Creative Work, Creativity
The concept of “creative work” is interpreted as a human activity aimed at the creation of principally new and previously unknown spiritual or material values (new works of art, scientific discoveries, engineering and technological, administrative or
Thus, creative management at the enterprise is a special organizational and management activity aimed at achieving high economic, social and environmental performance by activating a creative activity when innovations are introduced. It does not invent the methods of creative potential activation, and generates their composition and a rational sequence.
Fig. 1.2. Raphaello Santi. Fresco The School of Athens
other innovations etc.) . Fantasy, imagination and unconventional thinking, mental content of which is to create an image of a final product (creativity outcome) are the necessary components of creative work.
Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, was among the first who highlighted the concept of creative work, emphasizing its universal nature: “Any transition from non- existence to existence is creative work, and thus, creation of any works of art and crafts can be called creative work, and all those who made them — their creators” .
Fundamental changes took place with the onset of Christianity and the emergence of the concept of the creation (Lat. Creatio) of the world by God (God is the creator because he created the world); however the term was not used in respect to human activities.
At the Renaissance, by contrast, creativity imbued with the faith in infinite human capabilities was more and more recognized as an artistic action; there emerged an interest to an artist’s personality and to the act of creation itself (Fig. 1.2).
The tendency to consider history as a result of human creativity becomes more and more evident .
A Polish poet M.K. Sarbiewski (1595-1640) began to use the word with regard to poetry. However, such an idea of creative work was criticized for a long time because of the interpretation of the term as an act of creation from nothing. At the Age of Enlightenment, creative work was associated with the human ability to imagine. British empiricists (F. Bacon, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, D. Hume) interpreted creative work as some combination of existing elements. Thus, creative work was much similar to invention.
In the XVIII century I. Kant became the author of another concept of creativity.
He purposefully analyzed a creative activity in his teaching about a productive ability of imagination acting as a link between the mind and sensory experience.
Creative work can be considered from two aspects: psychological and philosophical.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the founder of the German classical philosophy. He claimed, inter alia, that a condition of cognition is universally valid a priory forms, ordering the chaos of sensations.
Kant's doctrine was further developed by Schelling, who considered a creative ability in the unity of conscious and subconscious human activity. At the age of Romanticism, the view of an artist as a genius, creating by intuition, reached its climax when creative work of an artist and a philosopher was considered the highest form of human activity.
In terms of idealistic philosophy of the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries, creative work is considered mostly as some sort of antithesis to mechanical and technical activity. At that, if the philosophy of life contrasts technical rationalism and creative natural origin, existentialism emphasizes spiritual and personal nature of creative work. In the philosophy of life, the most detailed concept of creative work was presented by H. Bergson (Creative Evolution, 1907):
creative work as a continuous birth of the new is the essence of life. All reality is considered by the philosopher as “continuous growth and endless creative work”
. According to existentialists creative work is the most appropriate form of existence. N. Berdyaev (The Meaning of the Creative Act, 1916) considers the creative work as “an act of godlike freedom of a human being, revelation of the image of the Creator in him” .
Philosophy of pragmatism as well as positivism, on the contrary, regards creative work as invention which purpose is to solve a problem caused by a given situation. Marxist philosophy defines creative work as “a human activity transforming both natural and social world in accordance with man and mankind’s goals and needs based on the objective laws of reality” . At the same time, creative work demands a fuller play to personal initiative, individual inclinations, ideas and fantasy.
In psychology, creativity is studied as a psychological process of creating something new and as a set of personality traits. At first creativity as a process was
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854). In his philosophical evolution, there are no precise boundaries between its stages that can be named “philosophy of nature” (natural philosophy), transcendental idealism, “identity philosophy” and “philosophy of revelation”.
Nikolai Berdyaev (1874-1948) —Russian religious philosopher, one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century, the founder of Existentialism —the philosophy of existence, who made a significant impact in the development of art and literature. He initiated a philosophical direction of “personalism,” which admits personality as the primary creative reality, and the whole world — as the manifestation of a creative activity of
“a Supreme Person” — God.
analyzed based on self-reports of men of art and of science (description of
“inspiration,” “throes of creation” and so on). An English scientist J. Wallace (1924) divided a creative process into 4 phases: preparation, incubation (of the idea), illumination and verification. The similar stages were also distinguished by H. Poincaré when describing the process of his several mathematical discoveries .
According to the scientist, a constructive process begins with setting a task, followed by unconscious cerebration, unexpected discovery of a lead, and finishes with processing of results.
Since the main links of the process (incubation and illumination) cannot be controlled consciously and volitionally, it gave rise to concepts that underlined a decisive role of subconscious and irrational factors in creative work. However, experimental psychology has proven that unconscious is present in conscious, intuitive and mental processes as well.
The aggregate of psychic attributes, characteristic of a creative personality, became an object of concrete scientific study once tests were invented along with methods of their processing and analysis. Scholars’ statistical studies examine relationship between education and work efficiency, between age and the dynamics of creative work. Methods to stimulate group creative work were developed.
The “Threshold hypothesis,” proposed by P. Torrance, became a popular model.
He considers that the high degree of intelligence is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for high creative abilities . All in all, one can say about a positive relationship between creative abilities and intelligence, although this relationship will not become apparent if only people with the high level of intelligence are evaluated.
Other scholars studied relationship between emotions and a creative activity.
Some researchers, one of them is H. Eysenck, consider that positive emotions not only activate associative thinking but also defocus attention, increasing the area to pick up the facts relating to the examined problem .
On the other hand, a number of researchers consider that negative emotions can increase creativity. For example, Arnold Ludwig when studying activities of 1005 eminent personalities of the 20th century, found a weak but meaningful connection between their depressions and creative achievements. According to
Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) —French mathematician, physicist, philosopher and theorist of science. President of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
He is considered to be the last mathematician—universalist who was able to be in the know about all the mathematical results of his time.
Hans Jürgen Eysenck (1916-1997) —English scholar and psychologist, one of the leaders of biological psychology, creator of three factor model of personality, author of the EPQ.
different approaches to the definition of creative work limits, two types of creative work were established: of an actor (art) and of a sage (science and engineering).
Creativity (Lat. creare — produce) is the latest term defining “person’s creative abilities characterized by the ability to produce essentially new ideas and being part of the structure of giftedness as an independent factor” . According to Professor I.
Miloslavsky (Moscow State University), the term “creative” defines creative work, which “not only puts forward ideas, but also a certain practical result is produced”.
Thereby, he finds creativity as something similar to innovative activity.
F. Barron and D. Harrington, summing up the results of studies in the field of creativity, achieved from 1970 till 1980 , summarized the data on creativity as follows:
1. Creativity is an ability to adaptively respond to the need for new approaches and new products. This ability enables to realize something new in being, although the process itself may be of both conscious and subconscious nature; it is the ability to generate unusual ideas, to think out of the box, to find quick solutions to problematic situations.
2. Creation of a new creative product depends largely on a personality of a creator and on the strength of one’s internal motivation.
3. Special features of a constructive process, a creative product as well as a person are their originality, validity1, relevance to a task and suitability (aesthetic, environmental), optimality of a shape, correctness and originality at the moment.
4. Creative products can be very diverse in nature: new solution for a mathematical problem, discovery of a chemical process, creation of music, a painting or a poem, or of a new philosophical or religious system, of innovations in jurisprudence, fresh solutions of social issues.
Analyzing current studies of this phenomenon, we can conclude that until now there is still no definite answer to the question whether there is creativity as a phenomenon, whether it is a scientific construct or an independent process of creativity. And maybe creativity is a combination of other mental processes.
Creativity is an innate characteristic of a human being: due to it, man manifests himself, exercises social needs, and in due course satisfies his needs of achievements, of successes and self-expression. Thanks to the development of work skills, growth of experience, faced problems, and many other various situational, objective and subjective factors, creativity develops and shows itself differently throughout one’s life. One can say there is a relationship between behavior and creativity. Thanks to creative work, a person expresses one’s inner world and changes the external one, whereas products of creative work encourage him to further development.
We understand primary creativity as something new, differing from that what was before. Secondary creativity consists in creation of a specific object (carrying out
a complex multistep task, and so on) with addition of some distinctive features. It deals with those issues that have already occurred, have been realized before. For example, a director produces a performance based on a famous writer’s classical work, but, nevertheless, he has his own vision, casts at his discretion and creates his own performance according to the traditional principles of performance creation (genre). Secondary creativity is considered in certain specific situation or circumstances, and the novelty in it is somewhat arbitrary.
However, a director can approach a production in a totally new way. It is a question of the birth of a unique conception, which no artist has ever seen, foreseen and used before. This can be considered as primary creativity.
L.Vygotsky, a well-known psychologist, studied person’s creative essence from the cultural–historical point of view. He believed that due to an activity, the person study, “deciphers” products of culture, heritage of mankind, and acquires them in his own way. This process is the foundation and prerequisite of self-development. Every person has a unique inner world and shows creative potential in his own way .
For a visual comparison, Table 1.1 summarizes some scholars’ views on creativity.
G. Altshuller considered objective and subjective relations of constructive process in four aspects: philosophical, social, psychological and methodical. In philosophical terms — formalization can be spread only to a reproductive component and cannot be regarded as the key to understanding of that part of the constructive process, which is characterized by a productive component [8, 9]. In social terms — two forms of reflection of the need for a creative activity: social mandate, and need revealed by the subject. In psychological terms — two approaches: study of creator’s psychology;
research of the methods used by creators in made “products” of creative work.
The reasons of “psychological barriers” and inertia of thinking began to be considered as a result of the first approach:
• habit strength due to profession;
• fear to get into a different area of knowledge;
• influence of authority, titles/ranks;
• presence of specific terms;
• inability to reformulate the conditions of a problem.
Lev Semionovich Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) — Belarusian and Soviet psychologist, founder of cultural-historical branch of psychology. Known in Europe and the USA as one of the founders and fathers of cognitive psychology (higher mental processes, thinking-in-words, learning theory). In Soviet times, he was considered as a reactionary psychologist; collections of his works were published only in the early 80s of the 20th century.
Table 1.1 The essence of creativity from some scholars’ viewpoint
AUTHOR CONTENT OF CREATIVITY
L. Vygotsky Any activity that creates something new is a creative one. Creative work
— необходимое условие существования, и всё вокруг обязано своим происхождением творческому процессу человека.
Ya. Ponomarev Creativity consists of two main components: formal and dynamic aspect of motivational tension, manifested through active research activity, intellectual labor; sensitivity, i.e., the responsiveness to visceral displays of intellection.
A. Yakovleva Creativity — is a realization of person's own individuality, and not a set of personal traits.
V. Molyako Creative giftedness is innate static phenomenon, and habits and skills of creative solution of activity problems are formed already on its basis.
M. Poddyakov Creative directedness consists of a number of components: needs and motives; formation of goals; emotional regulation; means of cognition and results.
A. Matyushkin Creativity is formed through the development of personal properties, talent and abilities.
V. Druzhinin Creativity — this is the property which is realized only when there are favorable environmental conditions.
N. Hazratova Creativity is first formed on the inner personal motivation level, and later — on the external behavioral and productive levels.
M. Gnatko Creative work is an activity due to which the person produces new socially-significant material and spiritual values. Creativity is divided into potential (complex of respective inclinations), and actual creativity (respective abilities).
E. de Bono Creativity is, on the one hand, a natural human property, and on the other hand, this is — the highest form of activity of the individual, which is embodied in products of creative work.
A. Maslow Creativity — individual’s creative abilities, realizing the need for self- actualization.
A.J. Rowe Creativity is a reflection of our Creative Intelligence. It differs from what is normally considered General Intelligence. Creativity focuses on our desire to achieve something new or different.
G. Altshuller Creative work is: the process of analysis and synthesis of new forms and images in the human brain; the reflection of objects and phenomena of an objective world, the cognition of goal, conditions and reasons for emergence and existence of these objects and phenomena.
Making the list of typical methods of finding solutions was the result of the second approach, and in methodological aspect — of methods of finding new engineering solutions and psychological tools.
Thanks to creativity, the person express oneself, changes own inner and external world. Thus, creativity is characterized through categories of personality’s motivational orientation, of search and exploratory activity, the use of intuition in the process of elaboration and making a decision. The success when solving creative problems depends on the ability to manipulate ideas, images of objects and phenomena, as well as on “the personality’s inner plan for action” .
Ya. Ponomarev, a psychologist, widely interpreting the concept of “creative work,” defined this notion as “mechanism of productive development” and did not consider “novelty” as a decisive criterion of creative work .
The level of intelligence is of great importance, as well as the need for self- realization and the person’s idea about his place in the society.Only such a personality is capable of creative activity, and the product of one’s creative work serves as the final result of aspiration to unconventionally solve a certain problem. Considering this fact, a well-known American theorist A. Maslow noted that getting an arts education is extremely important for formation of better human beings, because its purpose is to reveal the personality’s potential from the humanistic point of view .
A recreational or reproductive personality is an opposite of a creative personality. The system of motivation of the former is simpler (perhaps even more primitive), cognitive aspirations — are low, thereafter the products of one’s own cognitive and practical activities are also not evaluated very critically by him.
Therefore, the constructive process is a manifestation of individuality.
There is an opinion that creativity — an abstract (ideal) concept, since its presence does not provide for compulsory material embodiment. An idea as an intangible product can disappear without getting its further development for certain reasons. Sometimes, creativity can manifest itself only in interpersonal relations for its own presentation of unique individual traits .
A completely opposite view on creativity consists in that it is mainly manifested in the field of scientific and engineering developments. Giftedness is the most important factor of creative work. The results of activity of such a person are more original than those of other people. At the same time, new methods and ways of solving individual problems dealing with adapting to the situation and environment are a positive effect of creative giftedness .
To think creatively — it means to be interested in the invention of original ways of activity, to be motivated to change the world for the better, using your own
“research strategies” for this . Therefore, a humanistic, mental and ethical component of creative work is undoubtedly important.
Humanistic psychology claims that abilities, inclinations, and even talents can be developed with the help of special programs that, in turn, will allow creativity to be formed.
The complexity of studying the phenomenon of creativity, in particular, is that the mechanism of its formation and development cannot be formalized. For example, there is no typical behavior sample, no positive creative behavior, no conditions of its imitation, or unequivocal social approval.
Certainly, the external environment affects the development of creativity. M.
Gnatko defines creative work as an activity due to which an individual produces new tangible and intangible values . Creativity can be divided into innate (pre- socialized) and learned (actual, “socialized”) creativity. Here the problem arises of determining the regularities of actual creativity formation, and of transformation of innate inclinations into reality.
It is very good, if intelligence indicators, such as speed, agility, flexibility of thinking, are combined with originality. N. Hazratova, in her sociological studies, evaluated two main behavior parameters: the value of creativity products and the foundation of motivation.  She came to the conclusion that at first it is necessary to initiate a motivational mechanism, and then there will be changes in one’s behavior and waste products.
In people with a high level of creativity inherent such traits as the hope of success, affiliation (Lat. ad-, to filius, son) that is, aspiration to be together with people, empathy. Otherwise, the fear to be rejected and come to grief prevails.
E. de Bono emphasizes that creativity — is not a natural talent, but rather skills that can be learned. To achieve creativity, conservative statements and rules should be challenged. “When we keep to the beaten track, our thinking often misses hidden opportunities, which are located outside of it” .
So, creativity can be realized in any work and can be manifested in anyone, especially if multitude of ways for creativity to be realized is taken into account.
1.3. Interrelation of ability, giftedness and creative work
Psychological science is making fresh advances and is playing an ever growing role in solution of pressing problems of education, production, and human communication area. Psychological research of abilities, creative work and giftedness are important in our context because of modern needs of society which requires highly skilled, creative personalities who could solve actual problems of state and social construction. There are a number of studies devoted to the study of personality’s giftedness at different ages, mainly concerning adult individuals. The problematics of adolescents’ giftedness is less studied, although this human age — is one of the most sensitive periods for development of one’s general and creative abilities, as it is during this period of ontogenesis that thought processes change significantly, and personality’s active creative attitude to the reality and to oneself is formed.
The problematics of creative work — is the subject of study for many psychologists from different countries (D.B. Bogoyavlenskaya (check), E. Bono, J. Guilford, V. Druzhinin, S. Kostyuk, K.K. Platonov, Ya.A. Ponomarev, E. P. Torrance, A.N. Matyushkin, A.V. Morozov, D.V. Chernilevsky and others).
Such scholars as N.S. Leites, V.A. Molyako, V.V. Rybalka, S.A. Sysoeva, A.V. Furman and others made a significant contribution to the development of subjects of intelligence, abilities, giftedness, creative thinking, and creative personality development.
The problem of abilities is studied from different positions and is developed in different ways. B. Teplov once pointed to three signs of abilities that are still recognized as classic ones, namely: 1) abilities mean individual psychological characteristics distinguishing one person from another; 2) not all individual differences are called abilities, but only those which deal with execution of activity or many kinds of it; 3) notion of “ability” is not reduced to knowledge, skills or habits this person has already acquired .
S.L. Rubinstein, as well as B. Teplov, understood by the abilities a complex synthetic formation of personality, which determines one’s ability to successfully perform any type of activity .The scientist also did not reduce the abilities to knowledge, habits and skills, and had a dialectical approach to this problem: on the one hand, ability is the prerequisite to execute an action and, at the same time, to master knowledge and skills, and on the other hand — abilities are formed in the process of mastering them .N.S. Leites notes that abilities are such personality traits on which the possibility to perform an activity and the degree of its success depend . G.S. Kostyuk considered abilities as human nature manifestation, as complex synthetic personality structure, closely connected with complex of its qualities, particularly with knowledge, needs and interests . K.K.
Platonov in his understanding of abilities proceeds from their connection with personality structure, to which he attaches one’s “experience” (knowledge, habits, skills), “functional characteristics” (emotions, feelings, thinking, perception, will, memory), “biological conditionality” (properties of temperament), “directedness”
. Thus, abilities are mental properties of a socialized individual, being prerequisite for his successful performance of certain activities (acquisition of knowledge, habits and skills, their use in one’s work) as a conscious subject of everyday social life.
The term “intellectual giftedness” is synonymous with “mind,”
“mental abilities,” “intelligence,” “giftedness,” “talent,” “intellectual abilities,”
“cognitive sphere,” “cognitive capabilities.” Understanding of giftedness depends a lot on what importance is given to one or another kind of activity and what exactly is understood by “successful” performance of each of its
particular kinds. The essence of content of such notions as “giftedness”
and “abilities” consists in that that man’s properties are considered in them from the point of view of those requirements, which one or another practical activity sets before him. Therefore, there is no reason for telling about giftedness in general, but only about giftedness in a particular activity or a sphere of human practice.
Scientists mainly consider giftedness from the following positions: as a qualitatively particular combination of abilities on which the possibility of bigger or lesser success in performance of a specific kind of activity depends (B. Teplov); as inherited qualities, being a prerequisite for the development of abilities (M.D. Levitov); as a natural fund of abilities that are anatomico-physiological inclinations (V.A. Krutetskiy). At the same time, giftedness — this is first of all a high level of development of human abilities, given him an opportunity to achieve special original successes in a certain area or segments of social activities. Hence, general giftedness is a wide range of possibilities making the foundation of personality’s successful acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and norms, and later on of achieving creative success in many kinds of professional practice , where general mental abilities form their basis. That is, such a system of individual psychological attributes ensures a relative ease and efficiency in operating knowledge, images, and meanings.
Scientists point out that giftedness is one of the least understandable phenomena of the human psyche, which is not confined to high intelligence, being undoubtedly one of the most important criteria in evaluation of this trait (quality) of the personality. It is noteworthy that in the psychological science, different authors’
definitions of the concept of “intelligence” have much in common.So, intelligence — this is: a) rather independent dynamic structure of cognitive characteristics emerging on the basis of the genetically fixed (and innate) anatomico-physiological properties of the brain and nervous system (inclinations), which is formed in interrelation with them (L.F. Burlachuk); b) an adaptative mechanism ensuring adequate human adaptation to surrounding reality (V. Molyako); c) personality trait, manifesting itself in the ability to accurately and deeply reflect in the mind objects and phenomena of objective reality in their essential connections and regularities, as well as in creative restructuring of experience (M.D. Levitov); d) the system of orientation to the essential dependences of the problems solved (P.Ya. Galperin); e) a plastic, and, at the same time, stable structural equilibrium of behavior (A.V. Petrovsky). And personality’s psychogeny depends on the same factors as many mental functions of the organism do, that is, on innate characteristics, on the one hand, and on the environment on the other hand; it is a special system of individuality development as a complex psychological phenomenon, reflecting
essential moments of complementarity of mental and intellectual processes, a peculiar combination of generalized and individual structures of human mental life.
Manifestations of intelligence are varied and unstable. And nevetheless, “activation of all mental functions providing cognition of the world around in any act of thinking, memory, and imagination” is the dominant feature, with the help of which you can distinguish intelligence from other features of personality's behavior . Therefore, intelligence — this is personality's ability to perform various operations of logical thinking conditioned by the level of development of other mental abilities (perception, memory, attention, etc.).
The understanding of creative work is characterized by a wide range of views:
interpretation of creative work from a reflexological position as creation of something new in a situation when a problem-irritant causes the formation of a dominant around which past experience concentrates, which is required to make a decision (V.M. Bekhterev); as going beyond existing knowledge (D.B. Bogoyavlenskaya, A.N. Matyushkin, Z.M. Kalmykova and others); as interaction that leads to development (Ya.A. Ponomarev). Hence it is nkiatural that creative work is considered in several aspects: as a product; as a constructive process; as creative abilities and characteristics of sensible course of creative activity.
While studying the phenomenon of creative giftedness, researchers analyze its various signs and forms of manifestation. A.N. Matyushkin, relying on the works of E.A. Golubeva, E.I. Ignatieva, V.A. Krutetskiy, I.V. Ravich-Scherbo, B.M. Teplov and others, substantiates a synthetic structure of creative giftedness, to which the dominant role of cognitive motivation, research creative activity (finding something new, statement and solution of a problem), possibilities of forecasting and predicting attainment of original solutions, ability to create ideal standards ensuring high aesthetic, moral and purely intellectual estimations are attached .
One of the initial positions in the study of creative giftedness is distinguishing it as a complex psychological system. This system includes at least the following components:a) inclinations defining high sensitivity of the subject to certain kinds of signals and characterizing increased psychomotor capabilities;b) highly intellectual abilities;c) capacity for creative work (finding new solutions to problems, original assessment of a situation and so on); d) disposition to achieve predicted results, which is connected with overcoming various barriers, difficulties of external and internal nature .Besides, an important indicator of creative work is originality, which is primarily expressed in a creative style of a person, in the richness of one’s individuality. At the same time, originality — this is a sort of key, opening scientific, aesthetic and moral values of the world . And further, V.A. Molyako’s conception  allows interpreting creative giftedness as a high development of man’s creative abilities, promoting a successful solution of various problems.
We note (Fig. 1.3), in conclusion, that the manifestation of psychological characteristics of general and creative giftedness — this is a complex interconnected system formation, causing operation of mental processes that are naturally involved in integral course of intellectual (creative) activity of an adult.
Fig. 1.3. Kinds of giftedness, peculiarities and their components
The manifestation of general and creative giftedness of adolescents is a complex interconnected system formation, conditioning operation of mental processes that are organically included in a developing-situational course of purposeful mental and then creative activity as well.Psychological peculiarities of general and creative giftedness of teenage students are dialectically interrelated what is caused by a strong basic connection of verbal intelligence and verbal creative work, practical intelligence and practical creative work.The volume of knowledge of academic subjects (humanities, natural-mathematical sciences) and, accordingly, a high developing potential of the intelligence (verbal, practical) contribute to the manifestation of general teenagers’
giftedness. And a high development of their verbal and/or practical creativity and presence of disposition and aspirations to creative activity proper stimulate their creative giftedness formation.
1.4. Urgency of introduction of creative management in the activity of enterprises and organizations
Creative management should be developed because under modern conditions, the issue of increasing the quality of management decisions is topical. Unacceptably
Practical creative work
Intelligence Disposition to,
interest in creative labor Verbal
disciplines Successfulness in
academic disciplines Creative
Creative giftedness General giftedness
low quality of management decisions taken spontaneously, impulsively, without a thorough examination from positions of modern management, is one of the main causes of crisis in the economy.For a successful business management, it is necessary to meet a number of terms and conditions, in particular, the use of improved methods for preparation of information for managers. On the one hand, rational decision requires manager’s personal professionalism, and on the other hand — decision as a product of administrative work should be the result of mobilization of employees’ reserves and be based on full use of their creative potential, including its deeper levels. Improving the management of creative potential provides for its increase. However, despite the existence of different methods in scientific and technical creative work, or when developing new ideas in other fields, they are currently almost not used to improve management decisions in economic-organizing spheres. This is explained, above all, by more complex objects of analysis in comparison with that of engineering systems.
The urgency of introduction of creative management is also caused by the need for “emancipation” of the personality in the collective. It is no secret that school and family education is primarily aimed at suppressing uncommonness, originality. Creative management methods are used to fight against clichés, monotony.
Besides the issue of creation of a creative collective and its management, solving the problems of creative management to formulate tasks of artificial intelligence is of great importance.
It is necessary as to improve the efficiency of manager’s individual actions as to learn to control a process of changes. This requires competence in such issues as leadership, training, and creativity. In recent years, cognitive and behavioral techniques of neurolinguistic programming began to be introduced for the development of personal and organizational learning strategies, communication skills and those of management, which in turn enable the process of management of innovations.
Management of creativity in the organization can be considered on both micro- and macrolevels. The microlevel is a level of personality, and macroaspects are methods to enhance creative interaction in a group, collective interaction to solve problems in an organization.
Managers’ activities coordinate the work aimed at strengthening and better use of creative potential, intellectual abilities. Management, as a special kind of activity, has always used creative work. Firstly, it is used for development of solutions (even during daily meetings and sessions), secondly, during realization of motivational management function to induce subordinates to behave as it is necessary. Because of
ever increasing spread of “exclusivity” in management, we can tell that it approaches the sphere of art more and more. It can be expected that transition to a qualitatively new level of development of management will entail destruction of established stereotypes and emerghence of peculiar unknown traits.
The development of abilities has always been a prerogative of learning activity, and now switched over to the theory and practice of management. Management of creative processes is a synthetic field of knowledge. Creative work is an integral concept for different and even contradictory processes, and management requires for a control object to be clearly defined, intelligible and specific. Herein lies the dilemma of creative management.
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