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Analytical Outlines


Academic year: 2022

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З. М. Корнєва Ю.В. Павловська

Analytical Outlines

(Основи системної аналітики)

Навчальний посібник з англійської мови

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки України як навчальний посібник для студентів вищих навчальних закладів





УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ-923 К67

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки України Лист №1/11-16163 від 13.10.2014


О. Р. Валігура, доктор філологічних наук, професор, завідувач кафедри східної філології Київського національного лінгвістичного університету

В. П. Пономаренко, доктор філологічних наук, старший науковий співробітник, завідувач відділу романських, германських та балтійських мов Інституту мовознавства ім. О. О. Потебні НАН України О. Б. Тарнопольський, доктор педагогічних наук, професор, завідувач кафедри прикладної лінгвістики

та методики навчання іноземних мов Дніпропетровського університету ім. Альфреда Нобеля Відповідальні редактори:

А. А. Калита, доктор філологічних наук, професор кафедри теорії, практики та перекладу французької мови Національного технічного університету «Київський політехнічний інститут»

Л. І. Тараненко, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент кафедри теорії, практики та перекладу англійської мови Національного технічного університету «Київський політехнічний інститут»

Корнєва З. М., Павловська Ю. В. Analytical Outlines (Основи системної аналітики) : навч.

посіб. з англійської мови / З. М. Корнєва, Ю. В. Павловська. – К. : «Кафедра», 2015. – 338 с.

ISBN 978-966-2705-91-1

Навчальний посібник покликаний розвивати професійно орієнтовану англомовну комунікативну компетентність через запропонований у ньому студентоцентрований підхід до навчання іноземної мови, який становить основу методики індивідуалізації викладання іноземних мов. Автори пропонують принципово нову структуру посібника, у якому кожен урок побудовано за принципом урахування індивідуальних особливостей студентів.

Для студентів напряму підготовки «Системний аналіз» та суміжних спеціальностей, викладачів іноземної мови у вищих технічних навчальних закладах, та всіх, хто цікавиться проблемами викладання професійно орієнтованої англійської мови.

ISBN 978-966-2705-91-1 Корнєва З. М., Павловська Ю. В., 2015






Unit 1. Computer Hardware and Software………... 8

Unit 2. Programming………... 30

Unit 3. Expert Systems………... 53


Unit 4. Computer Networks………... 77

Unit 5. The Internet………... 101


Unit 6. Business and Enterprise………... 124

Unit 7. Banking………... 151

Unit 8. Market and Competition………... 176


Unit 9. Arithmetic and Number Theory………... 200

Unit 10. Discrete Mathematics………... 221

TEACHER`S BOOK………... 243


GLOSSARY………... 289


REFERENCES………... 325





Unit Title Reading Language

Function Writing Module 1. Computer Systems

1. Computer Hardware and Software

Computer and its



Instructions Manual / User Guide

2. Programming Computer

Programming Function of an

Item Test Case

3. Expert

Systems Simulating Human Thought

Passive Voice CV

Module 2. Networking Systems 4. Computer

Networks Connecting

the Planet Reported

Speech Letter of Application 5. The Internet The Internet

and The Web Questions Memo Module 3. Economical System

6. Business and

Enterprise Business and

its Types Expressing

Activities Business Letter 7. Banking Making Profit

from Money Giving

Reasons E-mail 8. Market and

Competition Monopolies, Oligopolies and Perfect Competition

Modal Verbs Report

Module 4. Mathematical Systems 9. Arithmetic

and Number Theory

Queen of Math Expressing

calculations Mathematical Problems:

Proof/Solution 10. Discrete


Discrete Mathematics

Conditionals Abstract




The present book aims to help you become a confident English user with well developed communicative and professional competences. As the title suggests, this book is created specifically for future System Analysts in conjunction with programs adopted at tertiary schools. Thus, the book can help you not only in your English study, but also in other courses as well as in your future profession.

What makes this book special is that it adopts and takes into account the fact that every student is a unique individual with his or her own interests, styles of learning, types of thinking and levels of English. It makes it possible to use all these differences as a benefit for creating motivation, stimulating creative and searching activities and encouraging individual progress inside a multi-level group of students.

The materials are designed for you to practise in class and prepare tasks at home with maximal efficacy according to your current level of English. Briefly, each Unit is divided into four parts:

• Whole-Class Activity;

• Differentiated Activity;

• Optional Activity;

• Workbook.

Whole-Class Activity section contains the core information which is essential to learn for everyone in the class. Here you will usually find a basic text, several vocabulary exercises and language function exercises.

Differentiated Activity section is developed according to different levels of English.

Most exercises of this section are multilevel and usually consist of three parts in ascending order of difficulty. While choosing the part which you want to accomplish, remember that the best way to study is to do exercises which slightly exceed your current abilities. This section also contains a lot of Pair Work, Group Work and Role Play Activities. These exercises are developed to boost your communicative skills and also to create cooperative and supportive attitude in the class.

Optional Activity section proposes several additional activities for students who want either to exceed the lesson`s borders and complete another intricate task or revise simplified version of the Whole-Class Activity material.

Workbook section contains hometasks to do in preparation for the class. It may comprise several multilevel tasks, Project or Internet Search Activities. Having all



done well at home will save classroom time for doing interactive tasks and will certainly influence your progress.

Using this book will not by itself make you a fluent English speaker; for that you need to care about your work at every level: at home, in class and outside the course.

The best progress line will be if you do 1st or 2nd Parts of multilevel tasks at the beginning of study, and end up the course doing more complicated 3rd Part or advanced Optional Activity.

For your convenience the book is accompanied by the English-Ukrainian-Russian Glossary that includes all the words which make up active vocabulary.

Learning English requires time and effort. But if you are determined to achieve the goal and are not afraid of overcoming difficulties, your work will certainly be fruitful.

We wish you successful learning experience!

The authors




At the end of this module Students will know:

➢ notions of computer hardware and software, programming and expert systems;

➢ basic parts of a computer;

➢ types of programming languages;

➢ principles of expert systems work.

At the end of this module Students will understand:

➢ the way computer helps to solve complicated problems;

➢ how programming languages have changed overtime;

➢ how expert systems can be applied in our lives.

At the end of this module Students will be able to:

➢ explain the structure of a typical computer;

➢ define the functions of computer parts;

➢ give instructions connected with computer operation;

➢ write simple user guides, test cases and CVs.



Unit 1. Computer Hardware and Software

Lesson 1

Whole-Class Activity Task 1. Pre-Assessment

You are going to read questions about computer hardware and software. Use your background knowledge to answer them. You may turn to Activity Pack if you need any scaffolds. You have 5 minutes to complete this task.

Rational Concern 1. Who invented the first computer

and when?

2. How have computers changed over time?

3. What was the most important breakthrough in computer development?

Practical Concern

1. What can we use a computer for?

2. What are the main parts of a computer?

3. What software is the most useful?

Analytical Concern 1. Why was the first computer


2. What would have happened if a computer hadn’t been invented?

3. Who benefits most from the existence of a computer?

Creative Concern

1. Why is the “mouse” called that way?

2. How can a computer help to create original things?

3. How can we use a keyboard in an unusual way?

Task 2. Reading

Read the text about computer hardware and software. Explain the meaning of the key words in bold. You have 20 minutes for this activity.

Computer and Its Components

It was probably the worst prediction in history. Back in the 1940s, Thomas Watson, boss of the giant IBM Corporation, forecast that the world would need no more than

“about five computers”. Six decades later and the global population of computers has now risen to something like one billion machines! To be fair to Watson, computers have changed enormously in that time. In the 1940s, they were giant scientific and



military devices and cost millions of dollars apiece; today, most computers can be found in everything from microwave ovens to cellphones.

A computer is an electronic machine that processes information – in other words, an information processor: it takes in raw information (or data), stores it until it's ready to work on it, processes it and then gives out the results. Different parts of a computer are designed to fulfil these functions.

A keyboard and a mouse are examples of input units – ways of getting information into your computer. A microphone and voice recognition software may also be used as another form of input. All the documents and files are stored on a hard-drive – a huge storage (memory) device. Smaller, computer-based devices like digital cameras and cellphones use other kinds of storage such as flash memory cards. Computer's processor (sometimes known as the central processing unit or CPU) is a microchip which works amazingly hard and gets incredibly hot in the process. That's why a computer has a fan to stop it from overheating. Finally, computer output devices may include LCD screen capable of displaying high-resolution graphics, stereo loudspeakers and an inkjet printer to make a more permanent form of output.

All the physical equipment used in a computer system together with peripherals you plug into it make up computer hardware. By contrast, computer programs are called software because ability to run different software is what makes a computer flexible.

The first computers were gigantic calculating machines made to deal with numbers and solve difficult mathematical problems. Today, computers work on a much wider variety of problems – but they are all still, essentially, calculations. Suppose you're looking at a digital photo in a photo-editing program and you decide you want a mirror image of it (in other words, flip it from left to right). The photo is made up of millions of pixels arranged in a grid pattern. The computer stores each pixel as a number, so to flip a digital photo it simply reverses the sequence of numbers so they run from right to left instead of left to right.

What makes a computer different from a calculator is that it can work all by itself.

You just give it your instructions and it performs long and complex series of operations all by itself. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, if you wanted a home computer to do something, you had to write your own little program to do it. For example, before you could write a letter on a computer, you had to write a program that would read the letters you typed on the keyboard, store them in the memory, and display them on the screen. Writing the program usually took more time than doing what you had originally wanted to do (writing the letter). Pretty soon, people started selling programs like word processors to save you the need to write programs yourself.



Today, most computer users buy, download, or share programs like Microsoft Word and Excel. Hardly anyone writes programs any more. Most people see their computers as tools that help them do jobs, rather than complex electronic machines they have to pre-program – and that's just as well, because most of us have better things to do than computer programming.

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.explainthatstuff.com/howcomputerswork.html as of 18th December 2012)

Task 3. Vocabulary Practice

Match the words (1-7) with their definitions (a-g). You have 5 minutes for this task.

1. Computer a. a peripheral device that accepts data and feeds it into a computer

2. Input device b. the physical equipment used in a computer system 3. Output device c. the programs that can be used with a particular

computer system

4. CPU d. a device that processes data according to a set of instructions

5. Hardware e. devices or units that operate separately from the CPU but are connected to it

6. Software f. any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing

7. Peripherals g. the part of a computer that performs logical and arithmetical operations on the data

Task 4. Vocabulary Practice

Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the list. You should use the scheme below. You have 10 minutes to complete this task.

manufacturer output hardware processing BIOS chips computer programs operating system

An (1) ... is the core software in a computer that controls the basic operations of input, (2)..., storage, and (3) ...

You can think of an operating system as the "foundations" of the software in a computer: other (4) ... (called applications) are built on top of it. The operating system relies on an even more fundamental piece of programming called the (5) ...(Basic Input Output System), which is the link between the operating system software and the (6) ... Unlike the operating system, which is the same from one (7) ...



to another, the BIOS vary from machine to machine according to the precise hardware configuration and is usually written by the hardware (8) ...The BIOS is not, strictly speaking, software: it's a program semi-permanently stored into one of the computer's main (9) ... .

Task 5. Language in Use

In your profession and everyday life you often feel the need to give instructions. Especially this skill is useful when writing manuals or user guides. Study the box explaining the ways of giving instructions. After that, match purposes of actions with the instructions using the information from the box. You have 10 minutes for this task.

Giving Instructions

1. We make simple instructions using the infinitive:

e.g. Open the file.

2. We express the purpose of an action using “To”, “In order to”:

e.g. To open the file, double-click the icon.

Double click the icon in order to open the file.

3. We can explain how to perform an action using “by + V”:

e.g. Open the file by double-clicking the icon.

4. When we have several instructions, we can put them into order using

“First”, “Then”, “Finally”:

e.g. First, open the file. Then, copy the text. Finally, insert the text into the address line.

5. We can show that one action follows another using “Having done”:

e.g. Having opened the file, copy the text.

6. We can express warnings by using “Do not + Infinitive”:

e.g. Do not open the file until the installation is over.

1. Open a file a) double-click on the icon 2. Select a file b) press TAB

3. Drag an object c) click the Start button, then click Power 4. Type all letters as uppercase d) press F1

5. Move the cursor several spaces forward

e) point to the object on the screen, press and hold the primary button, move the object to a new location

6. Display Help for a program or Windows

f) click its Maximize button or double-click the window's title bar

7. Make a window fill the entire screen

g) left-click the icon 8. Turn off the computer h) press CAPS LOCK



Differentiated Activity Task 6. Group activity

You are going to be divided into several groups to work out topical content of the text from Task 2. After that you will have to report your findings to the class. You have 10 minutes for this task.

Group 1. Your task is to track historical information in the text and fill in the gaps.

Back in 1940 … predicted that…

In 1940ies computers were …

The main task of the first computers was … Back in 1970s and 1980s you had to … Today, computers are …

Group 2. Your task is to complete a chart and give commentaries on it using the following expressions:

A computer works in such a way:

at first … Then…


An example of storage devices are…

Another examples are..

Group 3. Inside your group, discuss the following questions:

Why did Thomas Watson think that the world would need only five computers?

How have computers changed over time?

What is the difference between software and hardware?

Task 7. Listening

You are going to watch a video about an operating system. Choose whatever part you feel confident to complete or do them all. You have 10 minutes for the task. Use the following link to watch the video:




Part 1. Fill in the gaps:

An operating system is composed of (1) …… that is necessary to run your computer. Operating system software (2) ... your computer`s hardware components and all other software being used on your computer.

Traditional operating systems were (3) ..., and usually consisted of (4) ...

and computer responses. Most modern operating systems, such as Windows Vista and Windows XP, have a (5) ... graphical user interface, or GUI.

When you (6) ... a piece of application software on your computer, it usually uses the element of the GUI. Elements of a GUI include such things as: windows, (7) ... , buttons, scroll bars etc. GUIs are easier to use, faster, and accommodate better organization of your (8) ... and files than traditional operating systems.

Part 2. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

Justify your answer.

1. Operating system software controls peripheral hardware. □ 2. Traditional operating systems, such as DOS, had graphical user

interface. □

3. When you install a piece of application software on your computer, it

usually uses the element of the GUI. □

4. Windows, menus, buttons and screen are the elements of a GUI. □

5. GUI`s are easier to use. □

Part 3. Retell the text giving as many details as possible. You may use the text from Part 1 or statements from Part 2 as scaffolds.

Task 8. Pair work

In pairs, give each other instructions on how to perform the following actions using the help box from Task 5:

Start your computer Turn off your computer Drag a file

Copy a file Delete a folder

Uninstall a program

View the list of all programs Find a file

Create a System Image Restore files

You may refer to the following site for information:


You have 10 minutes for this task.



Task 9. Role-play. Pair Work

Student 1. Imagine that you have one of the following problems with your computer:

PC is running slowly

Internet is slow or not loading

You have decided to telephone the support service and ask a specialist for help. Describe your problem, give details and answer the questions you may be asked.

Student 2. Imagine that you work in a technical support call centre. You have been asked to help with a particular PC problem. Ask questions about the problem and give instructions on how to solve it. The possible solutions are:

Check Task Manager

Uninstall unnecessary applications Scan for Viruses

Clean up a PC

Disable and re-enable connection Change wireless channel

Reset the settings of your browser Install another browser

After you have done the task, switch the roles and act out a dialogue about the second problem. You have time until the end of the class.

Home Assignment

Do Tasks 1-4 from Workbook section.



Optional Activity Task 10. Facilitated Task

a) Read an extract from the text. Note, that Present Simple tense is often used in descriptions of objects. Analyse the underlined grammatical forms and deduce the rules of Present Simple formation in singular and plural.

b) Make up your own sentences in Present Simple tense using the words / phrases in bold.

A computer is an electronic machine that processes information. Taking in information is called input, storing information is known as memory (or storage), chewing information is also known as processing, and giving out results is called output.

Keyboard and mouse are input units – ways of getting information into your computer that it can process. Computer stores all documents and files on a hard- drive: a huge magnetic memory. But smaller devices like digital cameras and cellphones use other kinds of storage such as flash memory cards. The main part of a computer is a processor. It is also known as the central processing unit or CPU.

Computer usually has an LCD screen capable of displaying high-resolution (very detailed) graphics. It may also have other peripheral devices such as stereo loudspeakers or an inkjet printer.

What makes a computer different from a calculator is that it can work all by itself. You just give it instructions (called a program) and it performs a long and complex series of operations all by itself. Today, most computer users buy, download, or share programs like Microsoft Word and Excel.

Task 11. Complex Task

Read the article about 3-D printing technology from ‘The Economist’. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the author mean by saying that 3-D printing technology

‘does the opposite’ in the first paragraph?

2. How does a 3-D printer work?

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this technology?

4. What historical parallels does the author draw in the article?

5. How do you see the future of 3-D printing? Who will benefit and loose from the new technology?



Print Me a Stradivarius:

How a New Manufacturing Technology Will Change The World

The industrial revolution of the late 18th century made possible the mass production of goods, thereby creating economies of scale which changed the economy – and society – in ways that nobody could have imagined at the time. Now a new manufacturing technology has emerged which does the opposite. Three-dimensional printing makes it very cheap to create single items, which may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did.

It works like this. First you call up a blueprint on your computer screen and tinker with its shape and colour where necessary. Then you press print. A machine nearby whirrs into life and builds up the object gradually, either by depositing material from a nozzle, or by selectively solidifying a thin layer of plastic or metal dust using tiny drops of glue or a tightly focused beam.

Eventually the object in question – a spare part for your car, a lampshade, a violin—

pops out. The beauty of the technology is that it does not need to happen in a factory.

Small items can be made by a machine like a desktop printer, in the corner of an office, a shop or even a house; big items – bicycle frames, panels for cars, aircraft parts – need a larger machine, and a bit more space.

At the moment the process is possible only with certain materials (plastics, resins and metals) and with a precision of around a tenth of a millimetre. But 3D printing is spreading fast as the technology improves and costs fall. A basic 3D printer, also known as a fabricator or “fabber”, now costs less than a laser printer did in 1985.

This technological change will reset the economics of manufacturing. Some believe there will be no need for factories when every village has a fabricator that can produce items when needed. Others maintain that even if 3D printing does bring manufacturing back to developed countries, it may not create many jobs, since it is less labour-intensive than standard manufacturing.

The technology will have implications not just for the distribution of capital and jobs, but also for intellectual-property (IP) rules. When objects can be described in a digital file, they become much easier to copy and distribute – and, of course, to pirate. There are sure to be calls for restrictions on the use of 3D printers, and lawsuits about how existing IP laws should be applied. It is unclear whether 3D printing requires existing rules to be tightened (which could hamper innovation) or loosened (which could encourage piracy).

Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750 – or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950 – it is impossible to foresee the long- term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.economist.com/node/18114327 as of 9th January 2013)



Lesson 2

Whole-Class Activity

Task 12. Check the results of Tasks 1-2 from your home assignment (10 minutes).

Task 13. Work in pairs. Be ready to report the results of your Internet search to the class. Ask each other questions about the functions of computer systems (10 minutes).

Task 14. Discuss the following questions for 5 minutes. Turn to the help box if necessary:

1. What do you think a manual is?

2. What is the difference between a user guide and a manual?

3. What is the aim of a manual?

4. In what spheres are manuals often used?

5. What sections does a manual usually include?

6. How many languages are manuals written in?

7. How many pages should a manual contain?

8. Does a manual typically include illustrations or screenshots?

Task 15. Look through the following elements (A-I) and decide which sections of a manual they belong to. Consult the previous exercise if necessary. You have 5 minutes for this task.

A user guide or user's guide, also commonly known as a manual, is a technical communication document

intended to give assistance to people through a set of instructions.

User guides are most commonly associated with electronic goods, computer hardware and software.

The sections of a user guide often include:

A title page

A preface, containing general description of a product

A contents page

A guide on how to use at least the main functions of the system

A troubleshooting section detailing possible errors or problems that may occur, along with how to fix them


A FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Where to find further help, and contact details

A glossary and, for larger documents, an index



A. B.

C. • Do not use this product near water.

• Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand or table.

D. For technical assistance, contact your local dealer or distributor. You may also access our website for information on how and where to contact the service centres available in your area.

E. If the computer won’t respond or the pointer won’t move

• First, make sure the mouse and keyboard are connected.

• Unplug and then plug in the connectors and make sure they are secure.

F. To use a USB device with your computer, simply connect the device to the computer. Your computer automatically accesses the necessary software whenever you connect a new device.

G. hard disks 26

headphone outlet 32 headphones, speakers 15

H. Welcome to the new ProQuest search experience. ProQuest is all-new, powerful, comprehensive, and easy-to-navigate search environment. It’s a better way to search, find, use, and share information.

I. How do I create a new page?

There are several ways to create a new page:

• Create a link to the page on another page, then click on the red link which appears.

Task 16. Manual: Writing Techniques

Read the text about writing a manual. Decide which steps of writing you find the most or the least important and why (15 minutes).

Writing a Manual: Steps to follow

In your day-to-day work, you might find that there are times when you need to provide a client with documentation that walks them through a process or instructs



them how to do something they may be unfamiliar with. Writing a manual on an important function at work can demonstrate your abilities to your superiors. It demonstrates your ability to complete a project on your own. A manual, also commonly known as a user guide or user's guide, is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system.

User manuals have a bad reputation. In a recent USA Today poll that asked readers "Which technological things have the ability to confuse you?" user manuals came out top! Increasingly companies are rethinking the way they approach user manuals. Here are some steps to help you create a comprehensive instruction manual.

1. Decide on your subject. Be specific in scope and range.

2. Decide what audience you are writing for.

• Are you writing a manual for beginners or experts (or somewhere in between)?

3. Define exactly what you are going to talk about in the manual.

• Example: You are writing a manual “How to Install an Operating System”. One section might be about Windows 7. Another section might be about Mac OS. Still another section might be about Linux.

4. Decide upon a logical order to present your manual. This is not only about a logical order of actions. Some subject may need to be presented first. For example, tasks that will be included in all parts of the manual should probably be discussed first.

5. If the manual is going to use technical terminology prepare a glossary. If it is unlikely the reader will already know the terms, place the glossary immediately after the table of contents.

• Definitions of terms in the glossary need to be as exact as possible. If the term is an acronym, like “GUI”, then fully explain that it means

"Graphical User Interface" in the definition.

6. Decide on an organization for each section you are going to write.

• Example: You are writing a manual about a computer. You have a section called “Troubleshooting”. You might write part of it about disk space issues. You might write another part about an excessive memory usage.

7. Organize each section and subsection in a logical order, narrowing the range of the topic. Use your organization as a guide, but alter it if it doesn't work.

• Write descriptions of different tasks.

• Write examples that the reader can follow to gain instruction.

• Prepare appropriate illustrations.

8. Proofread, Proofread and proofread again.

Proofreading should be ongoing. Make notes of errors or omissions. Correct them. Make notes of passages others find confusing. Rewrite the passage to make it easier to read. Have a variety of people read your manual to insure the best possible result.

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Manual-from-Scratch as of 16th March 2013)



Task 17. You have found out that someone has been using your computer manual and several pages have dropped and mixed. Read the following extracts from the manual and put them in the correct order (5 minutes).

Setting up your computer


Opening the package

Open the package carefully and ensure that all items are present and in good condition. If any of the items are missing or appear damaged, contact your dealer immediately.


Starting your computer

After connecting all the peripheral equipment, start your computer according to the steps below:

1. Turn on all peripheral equipment, such as the monitor, printer, speakers, etc.

2. Turn on the system. Once the start up process is complete, you can begin to use your computer.


Connecting peripherals

After everything is connected, plug the power cord into the system and insert the other end into a power outlet.

Note: Don't connect the system power cord before connecting all peripherals to the system.


Selecting a location

Selecting the optimum location for your computer:

• Do not place the system too close to other electrical equipment.

• Do not place the system in areas where the power cord or other cords may be stepped on.

• Avoid placing the system in any location that is excessively dusty or damp.



Differentiated Activity Task 18. Tiered task

You are going to watch a video about the ways of creating a table in Word.

You have 10 minutes to do and check the tasks after watching it. Use the following link to watch the video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwbI4Zzd4r8 Part 1. Fill in the missing information.

You can (1) ... a spreadsheet in a Word document in a couple of different ways.

You can go to (2) ..., ‘Insert Table’, select the number of (3) ... and select the number of rows you wish.Click (4) ... and it will automatically create a table or a spreadsheet inside the Word (5) ... for you.

The other way to create an Exel (6) ... in a Word document is by opening up Exel, starting a new (7) ... and typing your data. Then you can select the (8) ...

of your spreadsheet, right-click, select ‘(9) ... , open up Word, create a new blank document and then right-click and (10)... And your spreadsheet will appear in your Word document.

Part 2. Match the actions with the way of inserting a table in a Word document. Put the actions in the correct order. Give your answer using such words as “to”, “so that”, “in order to” etc.

1. To create a table in Word a. Go to ‘Table’, ‘Insert table’

b. Click ‘Ok’

c. Open up Word d. Select the cells e. Open up Exсel

2. To insert a spreadsheet from Exсel f. Right-click and paste

g. Go to ‘File’, ‘New blank document’

h. Start a new Workbook and type data i. Select the number of columns and


j. Right-click and copy

Part 3. Explain the difference between the mentioned two ways of creating a table. What is the difference between a table and a spreadsheet?



Task 19. Tiered Task

Style of writing is very important when creating a user manual. Read the tips in the box on how to write appropriate instructions. Then, compare two extracts from a printer user manual and do the following tasks within 10 minutes:

Part 1. Decide which extract is better and why. Point any mistakes that you can find in the extract.

e.g. I think, that Extract … is better, because it is… It has many mistakes, for example, in step 1 the paragraph is too long and contains unnecessary information…

Part 2. Find mistakes in steps 1-4 and propose your own variant of writing instructions.

e.g. In step 1 the paragraph is too long and contains unnecessary information… It would be better to…

Part 3. Find mistakes in steps 5-8 and propose your variant on how to correct them.

Extract 1

To install the printer driver from the Software and Documentation CD-ROM:

1. Insert the CD-ROM into the computer’s CD-ROM drive. If the installer does not launch, do the following:

a. Click Start, and then click Run.

b. In the Run window, type: <CD drive>:\INSTALL.EXE.

2. Select your desired language from the list.

3. Select Install Printer Driver.

4. Select the installation method you want to use, and then follow the onscreen instructions.

How to give instructions

Many user manuals have instructions that are incomplete or incorrect. Here are some guidelines to help make instructions easy on the user.

1. Provide step-by-step sequences in the correct order.

2. Follow the timing and sequencing of the actual operations.

3. Provide visual stepping stones (e.g. Step 1, Step 2 etc.)

4. Avoid lengthy paragraphs.

5. Use everyday words and terms:

avoid jargon.

6. Explain what a function or feature is for (in basic practical terms) as well as "How to" instructions.

7. Do not assume the user has prior experience or product knowledge.

8. Write in the present tense and the active voice.



Extract 2

To print a borderless document:

1. Load the appropriate paper. This could be matte paper, glossy paper or even gloss laminated paper which can be used in cards production.

2. The file that you want to print should be opened.

3. So, you have clicked File, and now all you have to do is just click Print.

4. After having selected the previous options, click Properties, and then click Setup to get into Feature tab.

5. Select the media size from Size drop-down list after the Feature tab has been selected.

6. Borderless check box should be selected.

7. If you are printing photos, select Best from the Print Quality list. Alternatively, select Maximum dpi, which provides up to 4800 x 1200 optimized dpi for optimum print quality. This setting might temporarily use a large amount of hard disc space (400 MB or more) and will print more slowly. To avoid this, you may change other print settings (for more information, see Settings).

8. Initialize document printing procedure.

Task 20. Practical Concern

Work in groups. Look through the manuals / user guides you have brought to the lesson as your home assignment. Do they have the same structure and features as was described in the previous exercises? Analyse your manuals in terms of:

1. Aim of the manual;

2. Contents;

3. Layout;

4. Visual aids;

5. Peculiarities.

You have 5 minutes for this task.

Task 21. Project work

Work in teams. Imagine that your company is going to release a line of peripheral devices. You have been given the task to prepare a manual for one of the following items:

Team 1. Prepare a user manual for an optical mouse.

Team 2. Prepare a user manual for a portative loudspeaker.



Team 3. Prepare a user manual for a USB web camera.

Divide responsibilities inside your team so that one person prepares one part of the manual. Remember that your manual should have the following parts:

Preface, where you present the device, give its name and purpose

Guide on how to use the device

Warnings about where and how the device should not be used

Troubleshooting section, where you give possible problems with device and explain how to fix them

FAQ, where you give answers to the questions which may occur while using the device

Section, where you give contact details.

After completing the manual, discuss it in a whole-group meeting, and choose the best one. You have 20 minutes to perform and check the task.

Home Assignment

Do Task 5 from Workbook section.



Optional Activity Task 21. Facilitated Task

Read the following extracts from a manual. Choose the correct form out of three written in bold. After doing this, write your own steps to complete the instructions.

A. 1. Click/ Clicking / Clicks Start button.

2. Selecting/ Select/ Selected the Control panel.

3. Click/ Clicking / Clicked Date and Time settings.

4. ...

5. ...

B. 1. Shut / Shuts/ Shutting down the computer completely.

2. Unplugged/ Unplug/ Unplugs the power adapter from the main unit.

3. Opens/ Opening/ Open the case of a computer.

4. ...

5. ...

Task 22. Complex Task

Analyse the following extract from a manual. What is the purpose of the manual? What software is described? How can Java Control Panel be accessed? Write your own manual for any action in GUI environment.

1. a. For Windows 7, Vista

Click on the Start button and then click on the Control Panel option.

In the Control Panel Search enter Java Control Panel.

Click on the Java icon to open the Java Control Panel.

b. For Mac OS X 10.7.3 and above

Click on Apple icon on upper left of screen.

Go to System Preferences

Click on the Java icon to access the Java Control Panel.

2. In the Java Control Panel, click Settings under the Temporary Internet Files section. The Temporary Files Settings dialog box appears.

3. Click Delete Files on the Temporary Files Settings dialog.

The Delete Files and Applications dialog box appears.

4. Click OK on the Delete Files and Applications dialog. This deletes all the Downloaded Applications and Applets from the cache.

5. Click OK on the Temporary Files Settings dialog. If you want to delete a specific application and applet from the cache, click on View Application and View Applet options respectively.



WORKBOOK Task 1. Tiered Task

Part 1. Insert the following words in the gaps. Translate the sentences into your native language.

Pixels photo-editing program stored flash memory Upload word-processing program LCD screens unit

1. Data is ……. on the disk until it is ready to use.

2. Nowadays we use ……. instead of CDs.

3. Choose the photo which you want to ………

4. …… allows you to create and modify text documents.

5. You can make your photo brighter using ……..

6. The processing …… carries out arithmetic and logic operations.

7. …… are used in a wide range of applications.

8. Resolution is the number of distinct …… in each dimension that can be displayed.

Part 2. Fill in the gaps with one to three words from the unit.

The operating system is the most important program that (1) …… on a computer.

Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems (2) …… basic tasks, such as recognizing (3) …… from the keyboard, sending (4) …… to the display screen, keeping track of (5) …… and directories on the disk, and controlling (6) …… devices such as disk drives and printers.

As a user, you normally (7) …… with the operating system through a set of (7) … . For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME. (8) …… allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the (9) …… .

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/operating_system.html as of 28th December 2012)

Part 3. Imagine that you work in a technical support office. You have been asked to give written instructions on how to solve problems from Task 9 of the Coursebook (PC is running slowly / Internet is slow or not loading). Write instructions using 100 words.

Task 2. Tiered Task

Read the text about three most popular operating systems and complete any part of the task after reading.




The Linux operating system is developed on a kernel based on Unix. It is known as one of the most secure platforms, yet Linux is often viewed as more complex. Linux is the result of an open-source project, allowing users and developers to access the source code for free. Because it requires less hardware, Linux is capable of providing exceptional performance even on a smaller hard disk. Large communities of users exist for this system, constantly contributing to the code and making improvements.

The server-based concept of Linux has resulted in fewer home users and a lack of multimedia support for the system.

Mac OS X

Mac OS X is Apple's trademark operating system software for their line of Macintosh computers. The system was based in part on Unix and mimics it's format with the administrative controls. Mac OS X software requires a low level of maintenance with fewer occurrences of computers worms, viruses and spyware. The Apple operating system does have some disadvantages, primarily in regard to software and hardware compatibility.


The Microsoft Windows operating system is the most popular choice and currently has a stronghold over the market. This platform has made significant advancements from version 1.0 all the way to the new Windows 8 system. The Windows system is highly compatible, feature-rich and has a much larger selection of software applications. Unlike the Linux kernel, Windows is proprietary software and tends to be more expensive than others. Despite widespread usage, Windows has been heavily associated with the term "insecure" as a number of security vulnerabilities have made it the most targeted system. Frequently exploited by hackers and malicious code writers, it is recommended that any Windows operating system with internet access be protected by some form of security software.

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.spamlaws.com/operating-system-comparison.html as of 28th December 2012)

Part 1. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

Justify your answer.

1. Linux and Mac OS X are both developed on the basis of Unix. □

2. Linux is free of charge. □

3. Everyone can make improvements to the Linux OS. □ 4. Most programs are compatible with Mac OS X. □ 5. Windows OS has the largest number of software applications. □ 6. Windows OS is the most vulnerable system. □ Part 2. Fill in the table with the advantages and disadvantages of the systems.



Advantages Disadvantages Linux 1.One of the most secure

platforms 2.

1.More complex OS 2.

Mac OS X


Part 3. In writing, compare two of the operating systems in terms of:

➢ popularity;

➢ complexity;

➢ price;

➢ security;

➢ compatibility;

➢ software.

You may use the following expressions:

On the one hand…

On the other hand … In comparison with …

Unlike … , Similar to …,

What makes … different, … Task 3. Internet Search

Using the sites recommended by your teacher and any sites that you can find yourself, try to find some additional information about computer systems in English. The search should be done in pairs. Be ready to report your findings to the class.

Task 4. Find a user guide for any of your home devices and bring it to the next class.

Task 5. Writing

Having revised the material which you learned during the lesson, complete one of the following parts:

Part 1. Write a short manual (80-100 words) for a wireless optical mouse.

You may use the materials which you worked out during the class as an example. Follow the plan:

Preface, where you present the device, give its name and purpose

Guide on how to connect the mouse to the computer

Warnings about where and how the device should not be used

Section, where you give contact details.



Part 2. Write a manual (100-120 words) for an inkjet printer. Use the following plan:


Guide on how to connect the device

Guide on how to install the drivers

Warnings about where and how the device should not be used

Troubleshooting section, where you give possible problems with device and explain how to fix them

Section, where you give contact details.

Part 3. Write a user guide for an MP3 player, using the following plan.


Guide on how to use the device

Guide on the main functions of a device

Warnings about where and how the device should not be used

Troubleshooting section, where you give possible problems with device and explain how to fix them

FAQ, where you give answers to the questions which may occur while using the device

Section, where you give contact details.



Unit 2. Programming

Lesson 3

Whole-Class Activity Task 1. Pre-Assessment

You are going to read questions about programming. Use your background knowledge to answer them. You may turn to Activity Pack if you need any scaffolds. You have 5 minutes to complete this task.

Rational Concern

1. How did programming look like fifty years ago?

2. What was the main breakthrough in programming?

3. How often is programming used nowadays?

Practical Concern

1. What programming languages do you know?

2. Do you have any experience of using programming?

3. Where do we use programming?

Analytical Concern

1. What classes of programming languages do you know?

2. What are the criteria of such classification?

3. What would have happened if programming had remained on its initial level of development?

Creative Concern

1. Can programming be used in a creative way? Give examples.

2. In what way is programming used in such areas as music and art?

3. How can programming help create computer games?

Task 2. Reading

Read the text about computer hardware and software and answer the quiz questions. You have 20 minutes for this activity.

Computer Programming

Writing software or computer programs means describing how to do something. In its simplest form, programming is breaking a task down into small steps. In this respect, writing a computer program can be like composing music, building a house or creating other things. It has been even argued that in its current state, programming is an Art, not engineering.



Today, most people don't need to know how a computer works. Most people can simply turn on a computer or a mobile phone and point at some graphical image on the display, click button, and the computer does something. Basically, computers perform operations on objects. A microprocessor, which is the heart of a computer, is really primitive but very fast. It manipulates groups of binary numbers – numeric values represented in only two symbols: 0 and 1. Microprocessor operates binary numbers, representing parts of objects, and moves them around, adds pairs together, subtracts one from another, compares a pair, etc. As an example, computer display consists of a bunch of objects called pixels. Every pixel has a position which consists of the row and column it is in. Its colour is specified as three numbers – called RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.

Machine language, or machine code, is represented in 1s and 0s and is executed directly by a processor. The pioneers of computers wrote code in machine language, but no one does it these days.

One step above machine language is assembler language. In assembler, the operations that the microprocessor performs are given names.

Addresses in memory can also be given meaningful names. This is a big step over binary, but still very tedious to do any large software program with. It still has its place for little pieces of software that need to interact directly with the microprocessor.

Most software written today is written in high-level languages, some of them are quite old. For example, COBOL, FORTRAN, and Lisp were written in the 1950s.

Instructions written in high-level languages are converted into machine code with the help of specific software called compiler. Thus, high-level languages abstract away the specifics of the microprocessor in your computer and may use natural language elements making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable.

(The text is borrowed and modified from http://www.bfoit.org/Intro_to_Programming/Programming.html as of 12th February, 2013)

1. What is computer programming?

A. Convincing the computer to never freeze.

B. Speeding up your computer.

C. Setting the alarm on a computer.

D. The act of instructing computers to perform tasks.

2. The software that translates code into something meaningful which the computer can understand is called ...

A. Compiler.

B. Converter.

C. Transliterator.

D. Translator.



3. Basically, computers perform operations on ….

A. Things.

B. Objects.

C. Icons.

D. Stages.

4. In assembler languages, the names are given to…

A. Objects.

B. Microprocessor.

C. Operations and addresses.

D. Memory.

5. Microprocessor can understand only commands written in…

A. English language.

B. 1s and 0s.

C. Any numbers.

D. Words and symbols.

6. Which class of languages allows for the use of words and commands?

A. Machine code.

B. High-level language.

C. Assembler language.

D. Source code Task 3. Vocabulary Practice

Match the words (1-7) with their definitions (a-g). You have 5 minutes for this task.

1. Programming a. a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit

2. Binary numbers b. creating a set of instructions that computers use to perform specific operations

3. Machine code c. a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language into another computer language

4. Assembler language d. a program which translates from assembly language to machine language format

5. Compiler e. representation of numeric values using two symbols: 0 and 1

6. High-level language f. programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer

7. Assembler g. a low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the language and the machine code instructions

Task 4. Vocabulary Practice

Read the following sets of words / phrases and find out how they relate to each other. You have 5 minutes for this task.

E.g. “Program” is a synonym for “software”. “Create” is an antonym for “destroy”.



Programming, primitive, high-level, divide, convert, stage, turn on, part, execute, language, add, general, whole, complicated, low-level, step, specific, code, perform, change, break down, turn off, instruction, coding, command, subtract.

Task 5. Language in Use

When you deal with computer hardware and software you often need to explain how some items work. Study the table in which the ways of explaining functions of an item are given. After doing so, match the computer parts (1-8) with their functions (a-h) and explain them using the information you have studied. You have 10 minutes for this task.

Function of an Item

The function of an item can be described in the following ways:

1. Used for + V ing

e.g. CDs are used for saving information.

2. Present Simple

e.g. Operating system controls the hardware.

3. The function of ... is to ....

e.g. The function of input devices is to get information into computer.

4. be responsible for V ing

e.g. The CPU is responsible for interpreting codes.

5. allows you …, enables you to …

e.g. Software allows you perform different operations.

1. Housing a) interpret every code it receives from the other computer components, and make it usable to operating system

2. Motherboard b) produce a paper copy of the information on your screen 3. CPU c) hold all the parts that make the computer operate

4. Hard drive d) produce sound and music when connected to the computer 5. Mouse e) process information and perform computations

6. Speakers f) wire all of the computer parts together 7. Printer g) point to and select items on your screen 8. Computer h) store the information



Differentiated Activity Task 6. Group activity

In groups, work out the topical content of the following text. After that you will have to report your findings to the class. You have 10 minutes for this task.

Software creation

In order to create software you have to do more than just learning a programming language. A quick overview of the process includes the following stages:

1. Writing a program

This means writing the steps needed to perform the task, using the programming language you know. Set of instructions which you type to create a program is usually called source code.

2. Compiling the program

When you write a program using programming language, it's not yet in a form that the computer can use. In order to use a program, you usually have to convert it into machine code first. This conversion process is called compiling, or compilation.

A program called a compiler does the compiling.

3. Running the program

After compiling the program into a form that the computer can use, next step is to make the computer perform the steps that you specified. This is called running the program, or executing it.

4. Debugging the program

The term “debugging” came about because the earliest computers were huge building-sized machines, and real-life insects sometimes flew into the machinery, so first computer engineers had to physically "debug" the computers. Nowadays the term refers purely to fixing errors and problems in source code of the program.

5. Repeating the whole process until the program is finished

This stage includes improving the program until it satisfies the demands of software engineers and customers. This stage can be quite long and demanding.

Programmers commonly release a new version of their program every day for a couple of weeks after the initial release.

Group 1. Your task is to track information in the text and give definitions to the following terms:

Compilation, source code, program executing, compiler, initial release, debugging.

Group 2. Your task is to create a scheme of the process with details and examples for each stage, if possible.



Group 3. Inside your group, give detailed explanation for every stage of software creation. Decide, what stage is the most important. Are there any other stages, which were not mentioned in the text?

Task 7. Listening

You are going to watch a video about the development of object-oriented programming. Choose whatever part you feel confident to complete or do them all. You have 10 minutes for the task. Use the following link to watch the video: http://bigthink.com/videos/why-i-created-c

Part 1. Fill in the gaps:

In the really old days, people had to write their (1)………… directly to work on the (2) ………. You could do pretty good work with that, but it was very (3) ………..

Then they figured out that you could build languages fit for humans for specific areas, and they built FORTRAN for engineers and (4) …………. and COBALT for (5) ……….

And then a group of Norwegian programmers thought about creating a language that is fit for humans for all domains, not just linear (6) ……… and business. And they built language called SIMULA. And that’s where they introduced the (7) ...….. as the thing you have in the program to represent a (8) ..…... in your application world.

And they went a little bit further and represented (9) ………. between classes. This became known as (10) ………. or data abstraction.

Part 2. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

Justify your answer.

1. In the old days people wrote code using hardware. □ 2. FORTRAN and COBALT fit for specific areas. □

3. SIMULA was created in the mid -`16s. □

4. Class represents a concept in an application world. □ 5. Matrix, personnel record and dial buffer might become a class. □ 6. SIMULA failed to represent relationships between classes. □

7. Vehicle is a kind of car. □

8. Object-oriented programming is also called data abstraction. □ Part 3. Retell the text giving as many details as possible. You may use the text from Part 1 or statements from Part 2 as scaffolds.



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