MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE
«IGOR SIKORSKY KYIV POLITECHNIC INSTITUTE»
CALCULATION AND GRAPHIC WORK OF THE «MODELING OF
Recommended by the Methodical Council of the Igor Sikorsky KPI as a tutorial for students studying for
141 «Electricity, electrical engineering and electromechanics», educational program
«Electric Machines and Apparatus»
KYIV Igor Sikorsky KPI
Calculation and graphic work of the «Modeling of electromechanical systems» discipline [Electronic resource]: Tutorial for students studying for Specialty 141 «Electricity, electrical engineering and electromechanics», educational program «Electric Machines and Apparatus» / Igor Sikorsky KPI;
compilers: Vasyl Shynkarenko, Anna Shymanska, Victoria Kotliarova . – Electronic text data (1 file: 899 kB). – Кyiv: Igor Sikorsky KPI, 2021. – 41 p.
Status is given by the Methodical Council of the Igor Sikorsky KPI (Protocol № 7 since 13.05.2021 )
at the request of the Academic Council of the FEA Electronic network educational edition
Calculation and graphic work of the «Modeling of electromechanical systems» discipline
Compilers: Shynkarenko Vasyl, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Shymanska Anna, PhD, Associate Professor
Kotliarova Victoria, Associate Professor
Executive editor: Chumak Vadim, PhD, Associate Professor Reviewer: Peretyatko Julia; PhD, Associate Professor
Calculation and graphic work is an integral part of the educational process at a technical university of the research type, which involves the performance of scheduled tasks by the student under the methodical guidance of the teacher, but without his direct participation. ISW is the main means of mastering learning material at a time that is free from class. The main purpose of the work is to systematically and consistently master the full curriculum and to develop students' independence in gaining and deepening knowledge, which will enhance the future competitiveness of professionals in the global labor market. In the structural and logical scheme of the specialty training program, the discipline «Modeling of Electromechanical Systems» is actually the main discipline that provides future specialists with systemic knowledge of the principles and main classes of modeling problems. The discipline «Modeling of Electromechanical Systems» is the basic in the cycle of professional disciplines of innovative direction, both for students studying at the bachelor's educational qualification level and for students studying at the Master's degree program. Designated for bachelors of specialty 141 «Electricity, electrical engineering and electromechanics», educational program «Electric Machines and Apparatus».
© Igor Sikorsky KPI, 2020
LIST OF CONDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS………... 3
1 THE TOPIC, PURPOSE AND MAIN TASKS OF CALCULATION AND GRAPHIC WORK………. 6
2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PATENT INFORMATION SEARCH AND PROTOTYPE STRUCTURE SELECTION……… 10
3 SYSTEM MODEL OF EM-SYSTEM STRUCTURE FORMATION...… 15
4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE GENETIC CODE OF THE PROTOTYPE STRUCTURE……… 22
5 DETERMINATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION AND SPECIES BELONGING OF THE PROTOTYPE OBJECT………. 25
6 DETERMINING THE EXCISTENT AREA OF THE FUNCTIONAL CLASS OF EM OBJECTS………... 27
7 DIRECTED SYNTHESIS OF NEW STRUCTURAL VARIETIES OF ELECTRIC MACHINES AND ANALYSIS OF SYNTHESIS RESULTS 31 8 STRUCTURE AND REQUIREMENTS FOR REPORTING……….. 37
ANNEX A. Title of calculation and graphic work………. 39
ANNEX B. List of functional classes……… 40
LIST OF CONDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS
CGW - Calculation and graphic work;
EМ - Electrical machine;
EМCE - Electromechanical converter of energy;
EМ-object - Electromechanical object;
EМ-system - Electromechanical system;
FC - Functional class.
GC - Genetic classification;
ISF - Initial source of electromagnetic field;
LGS - Low of gomological series;
SG - Synchronous generator;
SМ - Synchronous machine;
WSTG - Synchronous generator combined with wind turbine;
Independent student work is an integral part of the educational process at a technical university of the research type, which involves the performance of scheduled tasks by the student under the methodical guidance of the teacher, but without his direct participation. This is the main means of mastering learning material at a time that is free from class.
The main purpose of the independent student work is to systematically and consistently master the full curriculum and to develop students' independence in gaining and deepening knowledge, which will enhance the future competitiveness of professionals in the global labor market.
In the structural and logical scheme of the specialty training program, the discipline " Modeling of Electromechanical Systems " is actually the main discipline that provides future specialists with systemic knowledge of the principles and main classes of modeling problems. The discipline "Modeling of Electromechanical Systems" is the basic in the cycle of professional disciplines of innovative direction, both for students studying at the bachelor's educational qualification level and for students studying at the Master's degree program. System models and modeling methodology constitute the theoretical basis, which is used in the following innovative disciplines: "Special electrical machines" (course work of innovative direction), "Innovative synthesis of electromechanical systems", "Fundamentals of the theory of structures of electromechanical systems". The latest methods of systematic and innovative modeling are the basis of such master's degree programs as: "Synthesis and deciphering of genetic programs of electromechanical energy converters", "Genetic prediction in electromechanics", "Decoding of the genome of electromechanical energy converters", "Systematics of electric machines" in structural electromechanics".
The discipline "Modeling of Electromechanical Systems" belongs to the disciplines of the innovation cycle, so the organization of individual and independent work is focused on the use of modern innovative learning technologies, which aims
to deepen, summarize and consolidate the knowledge that students receive in the process of studying.
Independent work on discipline requires the following mandatory types of work:
- working out the theoretical bases of the lecture (or received from the electronic abstract) lecture material;
- study of specific topics or questions recommended by the teacher for self- study;
- in-depth study of literature on a given topic and independent search for additional information;
- performing calculation and graphic work;
- preparation of answers to the control questions;
- systematization of the studied material before the exam;
and at the request of the student:
- writing of scientific reports, articles and preparation of materials for creative student competitions on the subject of academic discipline;
- participation in the preparation of educational and methodological materials in the discipline (presentations, video posters, video lectures, etc.).
The methodological basis for the organization of independent work with the calculation and graphic work of the discipline is the "Regulations on the organization of the educational process at KPI", electronic synopsis of lectures on the discipline and valid methodical recommendations.
1 THE TOPIC, PURPOSE AND MAIN TASKS OF CALCULATION AND GRAPHIC WORK
The methodological basis for the main tasks of the calculation and graphic work (CGW) is the latest scientific and methodological developments of the Igor Sikorsky KPI’s Department of Electromechanics, obtained in recent years by the results of basic research in the field of structural and genetic electromechanics [1,2]
and valid methodical guidelines.
Calculation and graphic work in the discipline "Modeling of Electromechanical Systems" has an innovative orientation, since its successful implementation is possible only under the joint realization of the student's creative potential and prognostic function of the system and genetic models of structure formation, which provides the student with new knowledge.
A student fulfilled within the framework of independent work of the SCR must satisfy the following general requirements:
- be of high quality personally fulfilled by the student within the term specified by the teacher (responsibility for the quality of independent work is directly borne by the student personally);
- demonstrate sufficient competence of the author of the work in solving the investigated issues;
- have scientific and innovative orientation and significance, contain certain elements of scientific novelty;
- the results of the task must be written in the form of a report, in accordance with the requirements of current standards for the design of scientific, educational and other works.
The structure of the assignment and the trajectory of its implementation implies the possibility of effective use of student's initiatives with the possibility of realizing his own creative ideas, as well as his educational and scientific interests.
The purpose of home testing is to provide students with hands-on experience in performing independent systematic research and deepening their knowledge based on
the sharing of student's creative potential and prognostic function of genetic models of electromechanical objects (EM-objects) and systems (EM-systems) structure formation with guaranteed innovative effect.
Obtaining an innovative effect (in the form of new system knowledge, creative ideas and hypotheses, synthesized new structures of EM-objects, competitive technical solutions) by the results of individual tasks is ensured:
- independent choice of the contractor of the object of study;
- problem-oriented formulation of the problem with the possibility of independent substantiation of the search area and formation of its own trajectory of finding solutions;
- using the latest methodology of systematic and genetic modeling with pronounced prognostic function;
- integration of creative potential of the performer and prognostic function of the system model;
- effective involvement of cognitive mechanisms in the stages of generation, visualization and systematic analysis of structures (logic, spatial imagination, systemic and associative thinking and professional intuition);
- mandatory visualization of a synthesized set of structures using the effect of cognitive graphics;
- possibility of adaptation of the search trajectory taking into account the artist's initiative and features of his creative potential.
The topic of home control work. The name of the topic consists of two parts: a common (common for all performers of independent work: "Directed synthesis of new varieties ... using the law of homologous series") and an individual (name of the functional class, for example: ... synchronous generators with prismatic permanent magnets ...) according to the recommended topic index (Appendix A), or offered by the student independently (in agreement with the teacher). The full title of the CGW theme is, for example: "Directed synthesis of new varieties of synchronous generators with prismatic permanent magnets, based on the use of the law of homological series".
In the first week of study, the student should select the CGW topic from the proposed list (Appendix A) or propose on his / her own, taking into account his / her own scientific interests, and inform the teacher by e-mail for timely fixation of the chosen topic.
Structure of calculation and graphic work:
1) To carry out patent information search on the topic of the CGW.
2) According to the results of patent information search, choose the object of research. For the selected prototype EM object, describe the design, principle of operation, features of operation and scope.
3) Provide a description and analysis of the periodic structure and invariant properties of the system model - Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic fields. Describe the essence of the law of homologous series and explain its predictive function.
4) Perform the problem statement. Justify the choice of model and method of solving the task.
5) Identify the genetic code of the prototype object and determine its genetic, generic and species status.
6) Determine the area of existence of the studied EM class. Perform its system analysis.
7) To determine the target function of the synthesis by the given prototype structure and to perform the directed synthesis and visualization of new varieties of EM, which determine the structure of the “ideal” homologous series. According to the results of the synthesis, to determine the innovative potential of the class.
8) Make conclusions about the work.
9) Report on the results of the work, prepared as required.
Integral evaluation of the results of the CGW performance is determined taking into account:
- the level of independence of the task;
- having creative initiative and using your own creative ideas;
- ability to independently carry out patent-information search on a topic of work;
- ability to logically and reasonably present the results of the study;
- the presence of elements of scientific and technical novelty of the obtained results;
- the degree of conformity of registration of work to the requirements of current standards.
Subject to the successful completion of the CGW, at the decision of the teacher, the student may be offered to continue research on the topic within the framework of the coursework or diploma work of innovation.
2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PATENT INFORMATION SEARCH AND PROTOTYPE STRUCTURE SELECTION
Information search is carried out on the topics of the CGW (for the functional class of electromechanical energy converters, selected on a list of topics or offered independently and agreed with the teacher) using literature (textbooks, monographs), scientific articles in periodicals, conference papers and online resources. It is recommended to use information from Internet resources only when there are guarantees of its authenticity (for example: literary sources, submitted in electronic form; information from official sites of enterprises producing electromechanical products, etc.).
Patent search is the research carried out in the process of creation, development and sale of industrial products in order to ensure the high technical level and competitiveness of these products, as well as reducing the cost of creating products by eliminating duplication of research and development. Patent studies are conducted on the basis of the analysis of sources of patent information using other types of scientific, technical and advertising-economic information, containing data on the latest scientific and technological achievements related to the development of industrial production, the status and prospects of development of the market of products of this type.
The purpose of patent searches in this work is to identify as many patents for inventions pertaining to an EMCE of a given functional class to select from them a prototype structure, the requirements of which are given below.
The patentative algorithm provides the following points:
1. Search task wording - a clear definition of a search object (for example, an induction motor with a short-circuited rotor, a multi-rotary motor, a synchronous generator with permanent magnets, etc.).
2. Definition of the classification headings of the International Patent Classification (IPC) - is carried out using its structure, for example: H (electricity) → H02 (production, transformation and distribution of electricity) → H02K (electric machines) → H02K 41 (systems of engines in which solid-state the element is moved
along a certain trajectory due to its interaction with the magnetic flux propagating along that trajectory) → Н02К 41/025 (asynchronous motors).
3. Determination of search restrictions (depth (retrospective), countries, total number of patents, etc.) - performed by the student on his own, but the search depth should be at least 10 years (in an arbitrary time frame), the number of countries - not less than 3, and the total number patents - not less than 10.
4. The actual patent search - is carried out using the largest fund of patent documentation of Ukraine and Internet resources (electronic patent database of the USSR 1924-1998 biennium, electronic-digital library of the European the patent office, the digital patent library of Ukraine, and other patent databases that have free Internet access).
Patents that have been identified by the search results are copied and appended to the progress report.
The choice of prototype structure of the EM-object is made by the results of patent information search, taking into account the following requirements:
- availability of original technical solution (innovation);
- novelty of the object (it is not allowed to use objects used in previous works) compliance of the prototype with the state of the art for this class of EM objects;
- availability of sufficient information necessary to describe andgraphically reproduce the structure, understand the principle of action and features of its operation.
The selected prototype determines the functional identity of the EM-object and describes: designs (with the necessary illustrations); the principle of action; features of electromagnetic processes; target function and method of its implementation; areas of practical use.
The magnetic circuit of the EM-object is visualized and described separately, and the circuit of the main magnetic flux closure is indicated.
Example. Analyze and describe the design and operation features of the 
EM-object which is selected as prototype structure for the study of a class of two- phase synchronous wind turbine generators (WSTG).
The structure-prototype of the class of WSTG wind turbine is selected by the results of patent search on the basis of compliance with its requirements, formulated above:
- EM-object according to the patent № 2312444 , characterized by the presence of the original technical solution: in order to improve the operational and technical characteristics, the packages of the two-packet stator are displaced relative to each other by half the tooth separation, which allows to equalize the total conductivity of the intervals depending on the angle of rotation of the rotor, while ensuring smooth operation and reducing additional losses.
- The prototype corresponds to the state of the art for a class of two-packet synchronous generators of wind power plants (application date 2005, patent publication date 2007).
Sufficient information is available to describe and graphically reproduce the design, to understand the principle of operation and the features of the functioning of the prototype structure.
The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely to electric machines, and can be used in low-speed wind turbines and hydrogenerators. The invention consists in the fact that in a two-packet synchronous generator containing stator packages with slots for windings and located between the packages multipolar inductor, to improve the operational and energy characteristics of the stator packs are displaced relative to each other by half the tooth separation (Fig. 1). In this embodiment, the two-packet generator displacement of the packets of its stator by half the tooth separation makes it sufficient to slant its grooves by only half the tooth separation to ensure a smooth transition of the inductor from the tooth of one stator package to the tooth of another stator package, which reduces the initial moment of excitation.
Fig. 1. Two-pack synchronous generator: 1, 2 - wound stator packages;
3, 4 - stator windings connected in series; 5 - inductor;
6 - permanent magnets
The alignment of the total conductivity of the magnetic circuit of a two-packet synchronous generator displacement of the packets of its stator while reducing the initial moment of excitation leads to the achievement of the technical result, which consists in improving the operational and energy characteristics by reducing additional losses and increasing the efficiency of the two-packet, synchronous and synchronous its radial design.
The synchronous oscillator comprises a stator consisting of two wound packages 1 and 2 displaced relative to each other by half the tooth separation. The grooves of the packets 1, 2 of the stator are made open with a bevel of half the tooth section. The slots 3, 4 are arranged in series. The rotor contains an inductor 5 with permanent magnets 6. The expected technical result of the invention is the alignment of the total conductivity of the intervals depending on the angle of rotation of the rotor, ensuring a smooth operation, reducing additional losses.
The scheme of the magnetic circuit of the generator and the path of the magnetic flux are shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The path of magnetic flux Ф in a two-packet synchronous generator:
1, 2 - stator packages; 6 - permanent magnets
The magnetic flux of the permanent magnets 6 (Fig. 2), which is closed through the stator packs, passes sequentially through two pairs of air gaps 1 і 1, 2 and 2. As the rotor rotates, the alternating magnetic flux of the magnets 6 gives the total electromotive force in the windings 3 and 4.
The disadvantage of the selected prototype structure is the significant losses in the winding parts of the winding, which significantly degrades the energy performance.
3 SYSTEM MODEL OF EM-SYSTEM STRUCTURE FORMATION Electromechanical energy converters (EMCE) refer to genetically determined systems of natural and anthropogenic origin that evolve over time, and their progressive structural diversity is a consequence of hereditary principles of structure formation.
The function of the system model of the EMCE structural organization is performed by the Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field (Fig. 3).
GC structure belongs to the class of generative systems of periodic type, the elemental basis of which determines the genetic (hereditary) information of electromagnetic and electromechanical objects-descendants of higher complexity.
Fig. 3. Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field (first large period)
Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field (PSF) generalizes invariant properties of generating EM-structures and forms a systematic basis for learning the fundamental principles of structural organization and patterns of development of electromagnetic and electromechanical systems.
The structural equivalents of the PSF are the spatial surfaces of the windings or
pole-forming systems that form the periodic structure of the electromagnetic field in the EMCE gap.
The structure of the GC is determined by the large and small  periods.
The first major GC period consists of 6 small periods represented by the corresponding geometric classes of primary field sources: cylindrical (CL), conical (CN), flat (PL), toroidal flat (TP), spherical (SF), and toroidal cylindrical (TC).
The structure of groups is represented by 4 groups: 0.0; 0.2; 2.0 and 2.2, which order the elemental basis of the GC on the basis of the conservation of their electromagnetic symmetry. Groups 0.0 and 2.2 are subdivided into two subgroups:
0.0x, 0.0y and 2.2x, 2.2y on the topological basis of maintaining the orientation of the field sources. Groups 0.2 and 2.0 are simultaneously subgroups of 0.2y and 2.0x.
The high level of ordering and invariant properties of the elemental basis of groups and periods of the GC are determined by the fundamental principles of conservation: electromagnetic symmetry and topological invariance (within groups and subgroups) and the Curie disymmetrization principle (within small periods).
The structure of large periods (secondary frequency) is determined on the basis of the principle of self-similarity.
Thus, the GC structure is a form of presentation of the following interrelated principles and laws:
- the principle of topological invariance of field sources;
- the principle of maintaining electromagnetic symmetry;
- the principle of parity;
- the principle of self-similarity;
- Pierre Curie's principle of disymmetrization;
- the principle of preserving the genetic code;
- periodic law of primary field sources;
- the law of homological series of electromechanical systems;
- the law of stability of species forms of electromechanical energy converters.
The periodic structure of the GC, which is a form of presentation of the principles of conservation and the integral periodic law, essentially acts as a global genetic program that organizes genetic information (genetic codes) and defines rules for the synthesis of known and potentially possible structural varieties of EME.
According to the theory of genetic evolution of electromechanical systems, the EM object of arbitrary complexity contains in its structure the genetic information of the primary source of the electromagnetic field, the structural descendant of which it is. Genetic information is generalized by a universal genetic code (for genetically pure EM structures) or by a genetic formula (for genetically modified (complex) structures).
Genetic code is an integral part of the Generative Periodic Table of Electromagnetic Elements (primary field sources). The structure of the genetic code is directly related to the location of the primary field source in the periodic GC system and is determined by the invariant information of the respective subgroup (invariants D and H) and the corresponding small period (invariant G).
Scode = (D, H) ∩ G, (1)
where D - is the group of electromagnetic symmetry of the generating field source;
H - orientation; G - is the spatial geometry of the primary field source.
The genetic code is multifunctional. It is a concise form of presentation of genetic information of the parent electromagnetic chromosome, determines the location of the corresponding primary field source in the periodic structure of the GC (Fig. 4), establishes features of the corresponding geometric and topological classes of objects and contains information on the taxonomic membership of the studied object in the structure of the systematics.
Fig. 4. The structure of the universal genetic code and its basic properties
Homology (from ancient Greek. ὅμοιος - similar, similarity; λογος - word, law) - system-wide property of genetically organized systems (both physical and abstract), evolving over time. Homology is manifested at all levels of the structural organization of evolving systems. For objects of electromagnetic nature, this systemic pattern manifests itself both at the level of the elemental basis of the GC (chromosomal level) and in the process of structural evolution of the EM objects (object and system levels).
Homology has a group nature and is manifested in the periodic structure of the GC in the form of the principle of topological invariance of the primary sources of the electromagnetic field. Because of the topological features (connectivity and orientation) that are part of the genetic information of the PSF, homology is presented in a universal structure of the genetic code. The electromagnetic elements of an arbitrary subgroup in the periodic structure of the GC belong to a single topological space and are connected by a group of homeomorphic (topologically equivalent) transformations. Thus, through homeomorphism, the principle of genetic information retention, subgroup elements are directly related to homologous series of EM objects of real technical evolution.
3ТP 1 0.2 у
Small period code Group propertues Taxonomic properties
Number of large period Number of isotope Spatial geometry
Number of surface edges Kind of edge effects Orientation
Topology reproduces generalized properties of field sources and their genetic descendants, which are invariant under arbitrary one-to-one and continuous transformations. These properties are generalized by the law of homologous series: in genetically related species of EM structures, which are the descendants of the primary field sources of one topologically equivalent series (subgroup), in the course of evolution, parallel rows of electromechanical structures-analogues with such accuracy are known that -structures of one species, it is possible to unambiguously predict and synthesize related structures of other species of this series.
At the basic level of genetic organization of EM-systems, the form of which is the periodic structure of the GC, the general set of primary field sources is determined by six subgroups (Fig. 3). Each subgroup is assigned a set of topologically equivalent elements
G = (H00у , H00х , H02у , H20х , H22у , H22х). (2) For the basic field sources of the first large GC period, equation (3) can be represented by the following ordered series of topologically equivalent elements:
H00у =<ЦЛ0.0у, КН0.0у, ПЛ0.0у, ТП0.0у, СФ0.0у, ТЦ0.0у>, (3) H00x =<ЦЛ0.0x, КН0.0x, ПЛ0.0x, ТП0.0x, СФ0.0x, ТЦ0.0x>, (4) H02у =<ЦЛ0.2у, КН0.2у, ПЛ0.2у, ТП0.2у, СФ0.2у, ТЦ0.2у>, (5) H20x =<ЦЛ2.0x, КН2.0x, ПЛ2.0x, ТП2.0x, СФ2.0x, ТЦ2.0x>, (6) H22у =<ЦЛ2.2у, КН2.2у, ПЛ2.2у, ТП2.2у, СФ2.2у, ТЦ2.2у>, (7) H22x =<ЦЛ2.2x, КН2.2x, ПЛ2.2x, ТП2.2x, СФ2.2x, ТЦ2.2x>. (8) The structure of generative homologous series represented by models (3) - (8) is identical to the elemental basis of the corresponding subgroups in the periodic structure of the GC. The homeomorphism of the structures inherent in the elements of an arbitrary subgroup (Fig. 5) provides the guaranteed completeness of the elements of a series. Genetically determined series of EM structures satisfying expressions (3) - (8) are generalized to the concept of ideal homologousseries.
Fig. 5. Fragment of ideal homologous series (subgroup 0.2y)
Ideal homologous series (Fig. 5) were synthesized using a group of topologically equivalent transformations (upper row - parent electromagnetic chromosomes;
bottom row - synthesized corresponding structures of electric machines).
Homologous series of EM-descendant objects that emerged in the course of technological evolution are referred to as real-information. Object-level homologous series are incomplete (discrete), and the structural representatives of such series are characterized at different times of their evolution and may belong to different functional classes of EMCEs.
In accordance with the principle of preserving the genetic information of the primary source of the field, hereditary information remains unchanged in the descendant structures of higher complexity. This means that each homologous series (3) - (8) of the chromosomal level is matched by genetically determined rows of homologous EMs and Species
H00у → H S00у =< SЦЛу, SКНу, SПЛу, SТПу, SСФу, SТЦу>, (9) H00x → H S00x =< SЦЛх, SКНх, SПЛх, SТПх, SСФх, SТЦх>, (10) H02у → H S02у =< SЦЛу, SКНу, SПЛу, SТПу, SСФу, SТЦу>, (11) H20x → H S20x =< SЦЛх, SКНх, SПЛх, SТПх, SСФх, SТЦх>, (12) H22у → H S22у =< SЦЛу, SКНу, SПЛу, SТПу, SСФу, SТЦу>, (13) H22x → H S22x =< SЦЛх, SКНх, SПЛх, SТПх, SСФх, SТЦх>. (14)
The regularity that determines the deterministic relationship of the elementary basis (3) - (8) with the corresponding series of objects of evolutionary level (9) - (14) is generalized by the law of homologous series of EM systems. The mathematical basis for the directed synthesis of homologous series of EM objects is a group of topologically equivalent (homeomorphic) transformations.
Thus, the law of homologous series is endowed with a predictive potential and functions simultaneously as a method of structural prediction and direct synthesis of new classes and varieties of EM objects by a given function of the goal.
Tasks to be solved using the system model in independent work:
- identification of the genetic code of the prototype object;
- determination of the genetic, generic and species status of the prototype object;
- determination of the area of existence of the studied EM class and implementation of its system analysis;
- implementation of directed synthesis and visualization of new types of EM that determine the structure of the “ideal” homologous series;
- determining the innovative potential of the class.
The description of the structure (the first large period) of the system model - genetic classification (GC) of primary sources of electromagnetic field .
The invariant properties (conservation principles and laws) of the system model are analyzed. The principles of encoding genetic information and the structure of the universal genetic code of EM objects are explained.
The nature of the predictive function of the law of homologous series is revealed. Defines the tasks to be solved using the system model in independent work.
4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE GENETIC CODE OF THE PROTOTYPE STRUCTURE
The selected entity identifies its genetic information. Describes the sequence of procedures that determine the components of the genetic code for the selected structure prototype EM.
Genetic code components are determined based on the analysis of spatial geometry and constructive execution of the active parts of the EM object.
The relationship of genetic information to the corresponding active elements of an electrical machine is described (Table 6).
The correctness of the genetic code definition is specified by the Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field .
An arbitrary EM object is a structural representative of a Species and a carrier of relevant genetic information. Therefore, based on the analysis of the design and the principle of action, for each structural representative of EM, which is made in the IBD, it is possible to determine the genetic information, ie the corresponding components of the genetic code (Table 1).
The results of the identification of the components of the genetic code are summarized as a table of correspondence.
The correctness of the genetic code definition is specified by the Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field . At the same time, the classification of the prototype structure to the corresponding type of EM is determined.
On the basis of comparative analysis of genetic codes, the dominant type of the studied EM class is determined, which is considered to be the species that includes the largest number of known structural representatives identified by information search results.
Table 1 The correspondence between the components of the genetic code and the
structural features of real EM objects Genetic information of the
primary source of the electromagnetic field (chromosomal level)
Structural features of the real EM object
Components of the genetic code
Spatial geometry of the field source (literal
1. Spatial shape of the active surface of the primary part of the EM (for
machines with distributed multiphase windings, with bandless
and smooth anchors).
2. Generalized spatial shape of the active surface of the pole tips (for
explicit pole EMs with
electromagnetic or magnetoelectric excitation)
CL; КN; PL;
ТP; SF; ТC
Type of electromagnetic symmetry in the direction of propagation of the field wave (the first component of the digital part of the
Spatial topology of the active surface of the EM in the direction of the arrangement of the pole-forming elements:
- closed (without edge);
- open (with edges)
2 Type of electromagnetic
symmetry in orthogonal direction (second component of the digital
part of the code)
Topology of the active surface of the EM in orthogonal direction:
- closed (without edge);
- open (with edges)
2 Orientation of the field
wave with respect to the elements of the spatial
symmetry of the field source (third component
of the code)
The direction of spatial motion of the moving part of EM:
- parallel to the axis (plane) of symmetry;
- is perpendicular to the axis (plane) of symmetry
G e n e t i c c o d e
Example. Determine the genetic code of a two-packet synchronous generator for wind power plants 6, the description and graphical reproduction of which design, and the features of its operation are given in Section 2.
Based on the analysis of the correspondence of the genetic information of the primary field source (Fig. 4) with the corresponding structural equivalents of the
studied generator (Fig. 1), we will determine the components of the genetic code. The results of the definition are summarized in Table 2.
Тable 2 The results of determining the components of the genetic code
Genetic information Structural equivalent
Component of the genetic code Spatial geometry (literal
component) of the primary field source
The active surface of the DSG stator has a toroidal flat spatial
shape (pos. 1, 2 Fig. 1)
ТP Electromagnetic symmetry in
the direction of propagation of the field wave (the first digital
component of the code)
The distributed stator winding is symmetrical (without edge) in the direction of rotation of the
rotor (pos. 3, 4 Fig. 1)
0 Electromagnetic symmetry in
orthogonal direction (second digital component of the code)
The surface, distributed stator winding has frontal parts (pos.
3, 4 Fig. 1)
2 Primary Source Source
Orientation (Third Component Code)
The active sides of the distributed winding are located
in the axial direction (Fig. 1)
Genetic code ТP 0.2у
According to the results of the comparative analysis, it can be concluded that the investigated generator is the structural representative of toroidal flat, synchronous, rotating machines with a double stator package (basic specie TP 0.2y).
5 DETERMINATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION AND SPECIES BELONGING OF THE PROTOTYPE OBJECT
Using the periodic structure of the GC  and components of the genetic code is determined by the classification of the structure of the prototype:
- the basic type of EM represented by the object under study.
The geometric model of the paired electromagnetic chromosome (electromechanical pair), which determines the hereditary structure of the prototype, is visualized.
The location of the parent chromosome in the periodic structure of the system model determines the identity of the object to the geometric class and homologous series (indicating all the genetic codes of related structures), which are representative of the studied structure.
Example. Determine the classification of the two-packet synchronous generator , the genetic code of which is defined in Section 4.
The generator under study is a structural representative of toroidal flat, synchronous, rotating machines with a dual stator package (basic specie TP 0.2y).
In the periodic structure of GC, this species is determined by the genetic information of the parent chromosome, which belongs to the small period of toroidal planes and subgroups 0.2.
By the location of the parent chromosome in the periodic structure of the GC, we determine the quantitative composition of geometrically related species
GТP = (ТP 0.0у; ТP 0.0х; ТP 0.2у; ТP 2.0х; ТP 2.2у; ТP 2.2х), (15) as well as the structure of the ideal homologous series of generators of the studied class (within the first large period of the GC)
Н02 = (CL 0.2у; КN 0.2у; PL 0.2у; ТP 0.2у; SF 0.2у; ТC 0.2у). (16)
The Sequences of the Species represented by expressions (15) and (16) contain in their structure the known Species (its genetic code is bold), the structural representative of which is the investigated generator, and the potentially possible, genetically determined, geometrically and topologically equivalent Species of the Implicit Type, which are the specific result of structural prediction.
The geometric model of the paired electromagnetic chromosome (electromechanical pair), which determines the hereditary structure of the prototype, is shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Electromechanical pair TP 0.2 y, which determines the hereditary structure of the prototype
6 DETERMINING THE EXCISTENT AREA OF THE FUNCTIONAL CLASS OF EM OBJECTS
Determination of the excistent area of finite set of generative structures for a given functional class EM is made on the basis of a system model with the requirements of the target search function FЦ
FЦ = (х1, х2, х3, …),
where х1, х2, х3, … - essential features of the representatives of the required class, which are determined by the results of the analysis of the prototype structure.
To determine the area of existence it is necessary to implement the following sequence of actions:
- determine the target search function (performed on the basis of the analysis of genetic information (genetic code) common to the prototype structure and the desired class of EM);
- to carry out a consistent transfer and check the compliance of FC signs with the generative structures of the subject area of the CC;
- to determine, by the results of the correspondence of the genetic information and the FC, the region of existence of the electromagnetic field generating sources that satisfy the FC, while recording the region of existence by the genetic codes in the form of a sequence of corresponding homologous series of EM structures;
- determine the genetic codes of a number of homologically related structures to which the prototype structure belongs;
- the results of determining the area of existence are presented in tabular form (in the coordinates of the basic characteristics of the CC) with the indication of the relevant genetic codes.
Carry out a systematic analysis of the area of existence, indicating the number of structures, limits of their existence, genetic and systemic properties of the class.
Example. To determine the area of existence of a class of two-phase synchronous generators, the typical representative of which is an electromechanical
object, the analysis of genetic information of which was carried out in the previous section.
Based on the information analysis of the known projects and the achieved technical level, the following essential features will be included in the objective search function of the FC:
1. consider the genetically acceptable variety of generators that realize rotational motion (x1);
2. the movable part of the generator must be mechanically compatible with the hydro or wind or hydro turbine (x2);
3. the presence of a distributed surface stator winding with the frontal parts in an orthogonal direction (x3);
4. search results should include information on genetically permissible diversity, both known (real-information) Generator Species and potentially (implicit) Species not yet involved in the techno-evolution of the class;
5. The information obtained must guarantee the completeness of the search.
So the target search function looks like
FЦ = (х1, х2, х3). (17)
For the correct determination of Q we impose the following restrictions:
1. search is carried out within the first large period of the GC containing information about the structural potential of EM systems of rotational motion (Table. 3);
2. the search is carried out within the homologous series 0.2 to which the selected prototype structure belongs (Section 3.5);
3. structures of a higher level of genetic complexity (hybrid, combined, complex, etc.) are not considered at this stage of the search.
Тable 3 The area of existence of EM systems with rotary motion of the secondary
part (is shown in gray)
ЦЛ КН ПЛ ТП СФ ТЦ
0.0 ЦЛ 0.0 х КН 0.0 х ПЛ 0.0 х ПЛ 0.0 у
ТП 0.0 х СФ 0.0 х ТЦ 0.0 х ЦЛ 0.0 у КН 0.0 у ТП 0.0 у СФ 0.0 у ТЦ 0.0 у 0.2 ЦЛ 0.2 у КН 0.2 у ПЛ 0.2 у ТП 0.2 у СФ 0.2 у ТЦ 0.2 у 2.0 ЦЛ 2.0 х КН 2.0 х ПЛ 2.0 х ТП 2.0 х СФ 2.0 х ТЦ 2.0 х 2.2 ЦЛ 2.2 х КН 2.2 х ПЛ 2.2 х
ПЛ 2.2 у
ТП 2.2 х СФ 2.2 х ТЦ 2.2 х ЦЛ 2.2 у КН 2.2 у ТП 2.2 у СФ 2.2 у ТЦ 2.2 у Taking into account the component x3 of the target search function (the presence of a distributed surface winding with the frontal parts in an orthogonal direction) and the limitations, the area of existence of the wind turbine is determined by a finite set of parent electromagnetic chromosomes in the GC structure that satisfy the target search function FC.
It is advisable to present the defined area of existence of a class of two-packet synchronous generators in the form of a table (Table 4), which not only structures the results of the study but also greatly facilitates their further analysis.
Тable 4 Excistent area of Species variety of Electric Generators reciprocating motion
Group Subgroup G e n u s
CL КN ТP SF ТC
0.0 у - - - - -
х - - - - -
0.2 у CL 0.0 у КN 0.0 у ТP 0.2 у SF 0.2 у ТC 0.2 у
2.0 х - - - - -
2.2 у - - - - -
х - - - - -
Number of species within the genus concerned
1 specie (20 %)
1 specie (20 %)
1 specie (20 %)
1specie (20 %)
1 specie (20 %) Number of species within
the functional class 5 species (100 %)
The analysis of the area of existence of the functional class of two-packet synchronous generators (Table 4) allows us to generalize the following its characteristic properties:
1. elemental basis of the studied class is determined by 5 paired chromosomes that allow the realization of rotational motion;
2. genetically permissible species diversity is limited to 5 species of cylindrical, conical, toroidal flat, spherical and toroidal cylindrical generators;
3. The species composition of the studied class is represented by 5 species of baseline:
NS0 = (ЦЛ 0.2 у; КН 0.2 у; ТП 0.2 у; СФ 0.2 у; ТЦ 0.2 у); (18) 4. based on the analysis of group properties, the studied class of generators is
determined by the homologous series 0.2:
Н02у = (ЦЛ 0.2 у; КН 0.2 у; ТП 0.2 у; СФ 0.2 у; ТЦ 0.2 у); (19) 5. the electromagnetic properties of the species diversity of wind turbines of the wind turbine are determined by the class of electromagnetically symmetrical longitudinal direction and asymmetric transverse, surface type windings:
S02 = (ЦЛ 0.2 у; КН 0.2 у; ТП 0.2 у; СФ 0.2 у; ТЦ 0.2 у). (20)
7 DIRECTED SYNTHESIS OF NEW STRUCTURAL VARIETIES OF ELECTRIC MACHINES AND ANALYSIS OF SYNTHESIS RESULTS
The synthesis (generation) of new structural varieties of EM is carried out within a defined area of existence using the law of homologous series of electromechanical systems .
Directional synthesis of structures is carried out with the implementation of the following procedures:
- using the prototype structure, a set of essential structural features - synthesis invariants, is determined;
- the target function of synthesis is determined;
- specifies the synthesis area (by imposing appropriate restrictions);
- the structure of the “ideal” homologous series is determined;
- using the method of horizontal transfer of genetic information, within a series of synthesis of structures and verification of its correctness;
- rendering of the synthesized objects of homologous series;
The analysis of the synthesis results aims to determine the systemic and individual characteristics of the synthesized EM structures, as well as the innovative potential of the class.
System features include:
- belonging to the respective topological series and their characteristic features;
- group nature and commonality of relevant components of genetic information;
- separation of the synthesized EMs by the corresponding spatial motion;
- the presence and coherence of the corresponding final electromagnetic effects;
- community of corresponding topological types of pole-forming windings;
- the presence of specific features inherent in the prototype object.
Individual features include those features of the synthesized EM that are specific only to its specific performance. For each synthesized EM object, the following are specified:
- features of the layout scheme of the active parts of EM;
- spatial shape, orientation of the air gap, gear-groove structure, EM poles relative to the axis of rotation, direction of motion;
- view of the spatial motion of the moving part of the EM object;
- features of the spatial circuit of the main magnetic flux locking;
- features of the spatial distribution of components of electromagnetic or electrodynamic forces;
- results of comparative analysis of synthesized structures with prototype structure.
According to the results of synthesis, using the results of patent information search, the innovative potential of a series is determined as the ratio
ПІ = -
× 100% , (21)
where N – synthesized number of structures of an "ideal" homologous series of EM objects; NI – the number of structures in the series identified by patent search results 4.
Example. By a given EM object (prototype structure ), determine all other structural representatives of the homologous series to which the structure of the given object belongs.
Section 3.5 defines that the prototype structure belongs to homologous series 0.2, the "ideal" structure of which consists of 6 PSFs:
Н02 = (CL 0.2у; КN 0.2у; PL 0.2у; ТP 0.2у; SF 0.2у; ТC 0.2у). (22) Considering the area of existence of a class defined in Section 6, we specify the structures of the homologous series within which we direct the synthesis:
Н02 = (CL 0.2у; КN 0.2у; ТP 0.2у; SF 0.2у; ТC 0.2у). (23)
Of the 5 structures of the homologous series (23) one corresponds to the structure of the original EM object (shown in bold), so that the result of directed synthesis within this homologous series is 4 structures:
Н*02 = ( CL 0.2у; КN 0.2у; SF 0.2у; TC 0.2у). (24) The synthesis invariants, taking into account the features of the prototype structure, are determined by the following set of features:
- two stator packages;
- the presence of permanent magnets on the rotor.
The methodological basis for the directed synthesis of homologous EM structures by a given object prototype is the law of homologous series.
Given that the structure-prototype (the original information of the problem of structural synthesis) is represented not only by information, but also by geometric model , it is advisable to apply the method of horizontal transfer of information based on the invariance of the principles of genetic structure formation relative to the spatial geometry of the type of EME. This pattern allows the generation of structures of arbitrary homologous species by sequential transfer of information of the prototype structure to the corresponding spatial forms.
The realization of spatial transformations is carried out in the form of an imaginary experiment, the basis of which is the cognitive mechanisms of the spatial imagination of the researcher, which is known to be the result of rectangular thinking.
Using the chosen method, we generate and visualize related structures according to a given FC (Figs. 7 - 10).
The peculiarities of the cylindrical structure of the wind turbine (Fig. 7) in comparison with the prototype structure (Fig. 1) is the increase of the axial dimensions and the appearance of the axial components of electromagnetic forces instead of radial ones. Air gaps are parallel to the axis of central symmetry of the structure.
Fig. 7. Synthesized structure of synchronous two-packet generator of cylindrical type (CL 0.2 y): 1 - packages of stator cylindrical spatial shape; 2 - a rotor with a
permanent magnet insert; 3 - windings
Fig. 8. Synthesis of the structure of a synchronous two-packet conical type generator (KN 0.2 y): 1 - packages of a stator of a conical spatial shape; 2 - a rotor with a
permanent magnet insert; 3 - windings
The peculiarities of the conical structure of the wind turbine (Fig. 8) in comparison with the prototype structure (Fig. 1) are the increase of the axial dimensions and the conical spatial shape of the active surfaces. The presence of both axial and radial
А А - А
А А - А
components of electromagnetic forces can be used to ensure self-braking. The air spaces are located at some angle to the axis of central symmetry of the structure.
Fig. 9. Synthesized structure of synchronous two-packet generator of spherical type (SF 0.2 y): 1 - stator packages; 2 - a rotor with a permanent magnet insert; 3 –
Fig. 10. Synthesized structure of synchronous two-packet generator of toroidal cylindrical type (TC 0.2 y): 1 - stator packages; 2 - a rotor with a permanent magnet
insert; 3 – windings
А А - А
The peculiarities of the spherical structure of the wind turbine (Fig. 9) in comparison with the prototype structure (Fig. 1) are the increase of the axial dimensions and the spherical spatial shape of the active surfaces.
The synthesized structure of the wind turbine toroidal cylindrical design (Fig. 10) is characterized by the same radial and axial dimensions compared to the prototype structure, but an excellent spatial shape of the active surfaces and the air gap.
Since the results of a patent search are one information representative of the studied class , and the structure of the “ideal” homologous series 0.2 of a wind turbine is represented by 5 structures, the innovative potential of 0.2 is 80%.
8 STRUCTURE AND REQUIREMENTS FOR REPORTING
The results of the HCW implementation are presented in the form of a report, the structure of which consists of the following elements:
- titule letter (formalized in accordance with the university's internal standards (Annex B);
- main sections and divisions of work (numbered);
- conclusions (in a concise form, a list of specific results obtained in the course of independent work is performed (with appropriate quantitative and qualitative indicators);
- References (sources of information used during the work are entered);
- applications (table of patent information search results, copies of copyright certificates, patents, etc.).
The text part of the abstract must comply with the requirements of the State Standard of Ukraine and the current internal standards of the KPI.
1. Навчальна програма дисципліни «Моделювання електромеханічних систем» (2019) Приєднані ЕІР: NP_MEMC. doc (2019-09-04)/
2. Робоча навчальна програма кредитного модуля «Моделювання
електромеханічних систем» (2019) Приєднані ЕІР: RNP_MEMC. doc (2019-09-04) / http://campus.kpi.ua/
3. Моделювання електромеханічних систем [Електронний ресурс]:
підручник для студ. спеціальності 141 "Електроенергетика,
електротехніка та електромеханіка", спеціалізації "Електричні машини і апарати" / В. Ф. Шинкаренко, А. А. Шиманська, В. В. Котлярова. – Електронні текстові данні. – Київ : КПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорського, 2019. – 258 с.
4. Основи наукових досліджень: [Електронний ресурс]: навч. посіб. для студ. спеціальності 141 «Електроенергетика, електротехніка та
електромеханіка», спеціалізації «Електричні машини і апарати» / В. Ф. Шинкаренко, А. А. Шиманська; КПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорського. – Електронні текстові данні (1 файл: 17863 Кбайт). – Київ : КПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорського, 2018. – 184 с.
5. Термінологічний словник з генетичної електромеханіки для студентів напряму підготовки 6.050702 «Електромеханіка» / Укл.:
В. Ф. Шинкаренко, А. А. Шиманська. – К.: НТУУ «КПІ», 2016. – 78 с.
6. АС № 2312444, H02K 19/16, H02K 21/24. Двопакетний синхронний генератор / Дийкова Н.Н., Бєляєв А.А., Головізнін С.Б., Халявін В.І.;
заявл. 08.07.2005, опубл. 10.12.2007, Бюл. № 34.
Annex A. Title of calculation and graphic work
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE
«IGOR SIKORSKY KYIV POLITECHNIC INSTITUTE»
“Innovative synthesis of new varieties of
(name of functional class of electric machines)
using the system model of structure formation”
Calculation and graphic work of the
«Modeling of electromechanical systems» discipline
Tutor: Student: _______________________
«__» ________ 20__
Кyiv – 20__
Anneax B. List of functional classes
1. Comparative analysis of two classes of problems in the study and creation of electromechanical systems.
2. Model concept and definition of modeling process.
3. Principles of modeling.
4. Four types of modeling relationships in modeling problems.
5. The problem of versatility and accuracy of the model. The problem of choosing a model.
6. Basic tasks and models of classical electromechanics.
7. Model of generalized electric machine.
8. Area of correct application of the generalized EM model in the structure of genetic classification.
9. Physical modeling of EMS.
10. Genetic model of structural structure and development of EMS.
11. Genetic classification of primary sources of electromagnetic field - system model of structural organization and development of EMS.
12. Periodic structure of the system model.
13. The predictive function of the system model. The rule of "star".
14. The principle of topological invariance of primary sources of electromagnetic field and its manifestation in the structural evolution of EM systems.
15. The principle of parity of primary sources of electromagnetic field and its manifestation in the structural evolution of EM systems.
16. Structure of the genetic code of the primary source of the field.
17. Relationship of the structure of the genetic code with the ends electromagnetic effects.
18. Functions of the genetic code.
19. The method of identification of the genetic code by a given EM object.
20. The rule of subordination in the structure of the system model.
21. The principle of preserving the genetic information of an electromechanical object.
22. Method of identification of the genetic code by a given EM object.
23. Models of EMS microevolution (construction, modeling problems).