MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE “IGOR SIKORSKY KYIV POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE”
Nataliia Saienko, Yuliia Olizko
CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS IN ENGLISH FOR
Recommended by Igor Sikorsky KPI Methodological Council as a study e-book for undergraduate students of
specialty 161 “Chemical technologies and engineering”
Igor Sikorsky KPI 2020
Reviewers: Oksana Synekop, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Igor Sikorsky KPI, Faculty of Linguistics, the Department of English for Engineering № 2
Natalia Dychka, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Igor Sikorsky KPI, Faculty of Linguistics, the Department of English for Engineering № 1
Larysa Spasenova, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Igor Sikorsky KPI, Faculty of Chemical Technology,
the Department of Chemical Technology of Ceramics and Glass.
Chief editor: Oksana Semyda, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Igor Sikorsky KPI, Faculty of Linguistics, the Department of English for Engineering № 1
Approved by Igor Sikorsky KPI Methodological Council (protocol № 6 dated 31.01.2020) after submission of Scientific Council of the Faculty of Linguistics
(protocol № 6 dated 27.01.2020)
The Study Electronic Book Nataliia Saienko, Ph.D., Professor Yuliia Olizko, Ph.D., Associate Professor
IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Saienko, N. & Olizko, Y. (2020). Chemical communications in English for Specific Purposes: E-book for undergraduate students of specialty 161 “Chemical technologies and engineering”. – Kyiv: Igor Sikorsky KPI.
ABSTRACT. This study e-book is recommended for classroom work with undergraduate students of the faculty of chemical technology. The main goal of the publication is to develop future chemists’ competences in English speaking, listening, reading, writing as well as development and improvement of translation skills. This book consists of five units and six creative projects which comprise real professional themes for teaching chemists. In addition, there are worksheets useful for group work. This e-book corresponds to the requirements of the study program of credit modules within the discipline “Foreign Language”.
© Nataliia Saienko, Yuliia Olizko, 2020
© Igor Sikorsky KPI, 2020
UNIT 1 Chemistry as a Science………5
UNIT 2 Chemistry as the Study of Matter……….…10
UNIT 3 Properties of elements, compounds and mixtures………21
UNIT 4 Creating and interpreting chemical graphs………..30
UNIT 5 Chemistry as a Profession………...36
Project 1. Material properties………..44
Project 2. Sustainable future………46
Project 3. Health and safety at work………...48
Project 4. Engineering jobs………...51
Project 5. Engineering education……….…54
Project 6. Water treatment………...56
Chemical communications in English for Specific Purposes is a set of practical exercises, creative projects and photocopiable worksheets for future chemists who study English as a foreign language at tertiary level. It contains audio transcripts and full answers.
There are five units on the basic topics of chemistry. These are chemistry as a science, chemistry as the study of matter, properties of elements, compounds and mixtures, creating and interpreting chemical graphs, and chemistry as a profession.
Each unit consists of listening, reading, writing, speaking and translation tasks. At the end of each unit there is a writing task. The book covers key facts and concepts from Chemistry, thereby giving students a running start for when they tackle these topics again in their faculty work.
Chemical communications in English for Specific Purposes is designed to improve the communication skills and specialist language knowledge of chemists;
with an emphasis on speaking in pairs or in small groups.
The book contains exercises and projects to foster creativity in the English for Specific Purposes. It is based on the belief that creative approach provides deeper insight into content and leads to stronger learning outcomes. This approach fosters multimedia and art elements usage in the English for Specific Purposes. Thus, some of the tasks of creative projects refer to online recycling programs, virtual tours of universities, mobility programs. The idea is to help students get used to searching for information in English. Creative tasks of the book involve poster drawing, creating recycled robots, making videos, writing poems, creating quizzes, and describing sculptures.
Authentic texts and infographic used in the book are taken from chemistry books or online resources mentioned in the reference. All exercises and projects were developed by the authors.
We hope that this book will be practical and motivating for your students.
[email protected] for questions
Chemistry as a Science
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
1. Answer the questions.
1.What branches of chemistry do you know?
2.What branch do you major in?
2. Match the branches of Chemistry in A with the correct area of emphasis in B.
1. Organic chemistry a) The behavior and changes of matter and the related energy changes
2. Inorganic chemistry a) Components and composition of substance 3. Physical chemistry b) In general, matter that does not contain carbon 4. Analytical chemistry c) Most carbon-containing chemicals
5. Biochemistry d) Matter and processes of living organism
READING AND VOCABULARY
3. a) Add more ideas to column A in Ex. 2.
b) Compare your answers with the ideas from the text.
Sub-branches of chemistry include astrochemistry (the chemistry in stars and interstellar gas and dust), electrochemistry (what happens when electrical currents flow through chemicals), food chemistry, geochemistry (the study of the composition of the Earth), nuclear chemistry, polymer chemistry, spectroscopy,theoretical chemistry, and many others.
4. Translate the sentences into your native language.
A. Match each of the following research topics with the branch of
chemistry that would study it: water pollution, the digestion of food in the human body, the composition of a new textile fiber, metals to make new coins, a treatment for AIDS.
B. Metallurgy is the branch of applied science that studies and designs methods for extracting metals and their compounds from ores.
C. You now know much of the basic chemistry on which advanced chemistry is based. This chapter introduces an important branch of chemistry called electrochemistry. Electrochemistry is the study of the process by which chemical energy is converted to electrical energy and vice versa.
D. An entire branch of chemistry, called organic chemistry, is devoted to the study of carbon compounds.
E. We hope to encourage you in your studies and to help you learn to solve problems in ways you can apply in all areas of your professional and personal lives.
F. One study based on data from 27 countries showed an inverse relationship between the cancer death rate and the selenium content of soil in a particular region (low cancer death rate in areas with high selenium content).
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
5. a) Look at the photos and answer the questions.
1. What branches of chemistry do they show?
2. How would you depict other branches of chemistry?
b) Draw the picture and let your partner guess the branch.
6. a) Answer the question.
What branches of chemistry can these phrases belong to?
Use the dictionary if necessary.
b) Discuss your ideas with your partner.
LANGUAGE IN USE
7. Find Present Simple mistakes in these sentences/questions.
A. What process the figure show?
B. What the colored particles represent?
C. The pharmaceutical industry one of the most profitable worldwide.
D. Scientists works with various models of carbon structures.
E. Chemistry are traditionally broken down into the branches listed in the Table.
F. Environmental chemistry deal with the role chemicals play in the environment.
G. Nutrients are the components in food that an organism use to survive and grow.
H. The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor opposite to that of a metal.
Plastics Pharmaceuticals Minerals Metals and nonmetals Semiconductors Reaction rates Food nutrients Quality control Metabolism Fermentation
READING AND VOCABULARY
8. a) Answer the questions.
1. Why did you choose your branch of chemistry?
2. Would you like to study organic chemistry?
b) Read the text and explain the words in bold. Use the dictionary if necessary.
c) Think of five different questions to this text. Work in pairs and ask each other.
HOW IS ORGANIC CHEMISTRY DIFFERENT FROM REGULAR CHEMISTRY?
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds1. Carbon is special. It is small and has only six electrons. Two of them are in the low energy inner cloud2, leaving four in the outer cloud where they can form bonds3 with other atoms.
These two things are what make carbon special.
Being small, carbon can easily fit into molecules4 that would not have room for larger atoms. Being small also means that the electrons are close to the nucleus5, so strong bonds can be formed. Having four outer electrons means that carbon also has four empty slots6 for electrons from other atoms, since the second electron shell7 has room for eight electrons. Carbon can form lots of bonds with other atoms, forming long chains8, loops9, sheets10, branching tree-like structures, and many other forms. This versatility11 is what leads to life. We call carbon chemistry organic because life is based on carbon compounds.
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds whether or not they come from living things12. We can see carbon compounds in interstellar dust, inside meteorites, in coal and petroleum13, and in the flames as carbon-based fuels burn.
Organic chemistry is usually thought of as the chemistry of compounds that have a C-H bond (carbon bonded to hydrogen), although there are organic molecules that have no hydrogen, such as Teflon.
The study of chemical reactions in living things is a separate branch of chemistry called biochemistry. Of course, the two fields (organic chemistry and biochemistry) are closely related and overlap14 in many areas. Inorganic chemistry also with organic chemistry, as many simple carbon compounds such as chalk and carbon dioxide are considered inorganic, even though both are usually made by living things.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
9. a) 1Listen and complete the sentences.
Your ________1 has lots of examples of chemistry.
________2, ________3, ________4 are actually one chemical.
_______ 5 water is the example of liquid.
Due to heat energy molecules hit like ________6. b) Answer the questions.
What other examples of everyday chemistry do you know?
What would you show in the poster on this topic?
c) Prepare your own poster on kitchen chemistry in a group of 3-4 students. Present it in a group. In the photos (Appendix A) you can see some ideas of students of inorganic chemistry department of Igor Sikorsky KPI.
10. a) Answer the question.
What is your favourite recipe?
b) Check some recipes online.
c) Work in pairs to brainstorm as many items of quantity/measurement (for example, a teaspoon, a litre of, a bunch of …) and processes (to boil, to chop, to fry, to roast, to stir…) as you can. Complete the mind map.
11. a) Work with Worksheet F.
b) Write your own recipe including a title, a short introduction, the exact measurements of each ingredient, and processes. In the introduction state the overall cook time, what occasion your dish is best for, why you like it. Write 200-250 words.
Chemistry as the Study of Matter SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
1. a) Answer the questions.
What do you know about………
a) composition/structure of matter, b) physical properties of matter, c) chemical properties of matter, d) states of matter?
b) Match a-d from Ex. 1 a with 1-4 below.
1. Gas, liquid, solid
2. Color1, shape, hardness2, texture, luster3, solubility4, boiling point, melting point, density5, magnetism6, mass, volume, length
3. Reactivity7 with other chemicals, toxicity8, flammability9, chemical stability10, types of chemical bonds
4. atoms and molecules [tightly bonded groups of atoms].
LANGUAGE IN USE
2. Make adjectives from nouns in bold (1-10) in the table.
WRITING AND SPEAKING
3. a) Describe the states and properties of matter in the photos.
b) Discuss in pairs
1. Alloy is a solid substance. It is malleable, ductile, strong, hard, conductive, corrosion- resistant.
4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9.
10. 11. 12.
READING AND SPEAKING 4. a) Answer the questions.
1. Why is it important to know the properties?
2. How can engineers use the properties?
b) Read and compare your answers with the ones in the text.
Engineers use the properties of matter to decide what materials to use when creating and building things. For example, metals have certain properties that allow them to bend or not bend, to expand and contract, and to hold certain amounts of weight. Engineers also use the chemical properties of different elements to develop mixtures and substances for new medicines and products.
5. a) Answer the questions.
1. Are all things around us matter?
2. Are heat and light, love, shadows, echoes, rainbow matter?
3. Why do you think so?
b) Read the conclusion in the table.
1. Matter has mass and takes up space
2. It can be expressed with a chemical formula from the elements on the periodic table.
c) Come up with more examples of things that are not matter.
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
6. a) Answer the questions.
May states of matter be changed? What is needed to make this possible?
Study the changes of matter in each picture.
b) Decide if the change is chemical or physical.
c) Write the answers in the table as in the example.
d) Compare your answers with your partner. Discuss them in pairs.
What is changing?
What kind of change?
1. Stretching rubber may change its color and shape
it’s still made of rubber and it is still a rubber band
e) Think of other examples of changes and answer the questions.
1. What is changing and what kind of change is it?
2. Can it be both chemical and physical change?
f) Discuss in pairs.
7. a) Translate these examples of chemical changes.
Сhemical changes Translation
1. Rusting of iron
2. Combustion of wood
3. Metabolism of food in the body
4. Mixing an acid and a base, such as hydrochloric acid (HCL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
5. Digesting sugar with the amylase in saliva 6. Milk going sour
7. Mixing baking soda and vinegar to produce carbon dioxide gas
8. Electroplating a metal 9. Explosion of fireworks 10. Rotting bananas
b) Prepare the same list of physical changes.
WRITING AND LISTENING
8. a) Write the definitions to the terms.
b) 2 Listen and check your answers.
c) Complete the gaps 1-8. 3 Listen and check your answers.
Matter has ______1 and occupies ______2. It is composed of tiny particles called ______3.
■ Matter exists in three ______4:
• Solid − is a rigid substance with a definite ______5
• Liquid − has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container
• Gas – takes the shape and volume of its container
■ Elements contain only one kind of atom − elemental copper contains only ______6 atoms, and elemental gold contains only ______ 7 atoms.
■ Compounds are substances that contain two or more kinds of atoms.
■ Compounds often contain discrete molecules.
■ A molecule contains atoms ______8 together in a particular way − an example is, the water molecule, which is written H2O.
READING AND VOCABULARY
9. a) Read and answer the questions.
1. What was the temperature of lava?
2. What substances were changing and how?
Cooling the Lava
The eruption came out of nowhere. Earthquakes had not even alerted the people who lived on the island of Heimay (part of Iceland). Even Icelandic seismologists thought nothing of them. Then it happened, on January 23rd, 1973- a new volcano erupting awakened the country.
The sounds that accompanied the eruption were equivalent to low-pitched roars. Then the volcano exploded violently, sending molten rock hurling into the air. Nearly all of the island’s residents were evacuated to the mainland. For months the volcano would spill constant streams of lava (liquid or molten rock) over its edge. Its slow and steady progress began to approach the village on Heimay.
What worried the people of the island the most was that the volcano’s lava migrated toward the harbor. It threatened to fill the harbor, which, was the center of the economic life of this fishing community.
On the third day of the eruption, there was a sudden onrushing of the lava and twenty-three houses and a large fish plant were engulfed in a single night. It was astonishing to see what an essentially liquid body of rock would destroy in its path.
b) Answer the question: In your opinion is it possible to cool the lava?
Cooling the lava was Thorbjorn’s idea. That such a feat had not been tried, let alone accomplished, in the known history of the world did not burden Thorbjorn, a physicist, who had reason to believe it could be done. During a previous eruption, Thorbjorn watched lava approach the sea. He had noticed the lava flow to the beach and then follow the coastline for a long distance. “The sea cooled it,” he explained. “Then lava ran along the cooled wall. I wondered could anything similar be done by man?”
The people on Heimey reasoned that buildings could be rebuilt, but if they lost the harbour it would be gone forever, and with it their livelihood. The Icelanders therefore sprayed seawater on the lava to try to slow or stop its movement. It was the largest effort ever exerted to control volcanic activity. More than 19 miles (30 km) of pipe and 43 pumps were used to deliver sea water at a rate of up to 1.3 cubic yards per second. By the end of the eruption, the people in Iceland had pumped 8 million cubic yards (6 million cubic meters) of water onto the flow.
The molten lava was about two thousand degrees Fahrenheit. Where the lava came in contact with the water it changed states from liquid to a solid, creating a wall of chilled lava to dam the flow. The water hitting the lava produced billows of steam. By early May, about 300 buildings had been engulfed in the lava despite the effort to try and restrict the lava flow.
Not only did the tremendous efforts save the port they actually improved it.
The residents returned to rebuild their town and even use the heat from the cooling lava to construct a heating system. One scientist from Iceland said, “If we hadn’t done something, I very much doubt that we would be here now.
c) Choose the word closest in meaning to these words from the text. Mark your choice a, b, c.
a protect a outbreak
1. alert b awaken 2. eruption b engulf
c set c flood
a send a stable
3. spill b flow 4. steady b changeable
c walk c positive
a locate a get away
5. migrate b move 6. approach b get closer
c place c get started
A move a strange
7. engulf b flood 8. astonishing b boring
c destroy c amazing
a posed a new
9. accomplished b completed 10. similar b alike
c set c few
a argue a hot
11. reason b agree 12. chilled b cool
c arrange c dry
a struggle a stop
13. effort b war 14. restrict b continuer
c research c limit
a great a renew
15. tremendous b terrible 16. improve b deteriorate
c typical c get better
a step forward a warmth
17. return b stay 18. heat b width
c go back c depth
10 4-6 Listen to the podcasts and complete the gaps.
a) Radon is the product of the decay of other unstable, radioactive elements such as radium, thorium and actinium. The colourless, ______1, tasteless gas can be isolated from these sources but soon decays as it has no stable isotopes. The early ______2 in the study of radioactivity, the Curies, had noted that radium appeared to make the surrounding air ______3. The discovery of radon is credited to a German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn, who traced this observed radioactivity to a gas which was given off by radium − a gas which he called 'radium emanation'. Similar 'emanations' were isolated from other elements - for example thorium, and eventually the gas was identified as the ______4 of the noble gases, named radon, and given its rightful place in the periodic table.
b) Boron is usually isolated as a brown, ______5 solid. I don't know anyone who thinks the element boron has anything ______6 about it. But its unexpected side starts to emerge when you look at some ______7 compounds of boron. Consider the nitride, for example - just the 2 elements at numbers 5 and 7 in the periodic table, but able to join forces to provide ______8 diamond or ______9 graphite-like structures, very similar to those of the 6th element, carbon.
Then there is the trifluoride - remember that acids were first classified as substances that could provide protons, but BF3 is the archetypal Lewis acid, which doesn't have a proton in sight, yet is able to coordinate with lone pairs, allowing it to catalyse an array of reactions. It can achieve this chemistry because boron really does have two sides to it - it is set up to form 3 bonds with ______10 atoms, but even in this state, readily forms an ______11 bond in order to complete the 2nd main shell of 8 electrons. but when it does this, it acquires a ______12 charge, and it can only regain neutrality by losing one of its bonds - it really does have a split personality.
c) Titanium. It is notoriously hard to make, but we have come to rely on it and indeed we couldn't do without this element or its compounds today.
So, why is it so important? The most ______13 compound is the oxide TiO2, which makes up 95% of the Ti used worldwide. We actually use 4 million tons of TiO2 each year, a lot of it for paint and other applications that need something that is bright white, ______14 and not toxic, like medicines and toothpaste. In the food industry it is ______15 number E171, used to whiten things like confectionary, cheeses, icings and toppings.
It is also used in sunscreens, since it is a very ______16 white and also very good at absorbing UV light. The ability to absorb UV light helps the TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst. This means that when UV light falls upon it, it generates free electrons that react with molecules on the surface, forming very ______17 organic free radicals.
Now you don't want these radicals on your skin, so the TiO2 used in sunscreens is coated with a ______18 layer of silica or alumina.
11. a) Record an audio track (≈ 1 min.) describing the properties of a particular matter. Don’t name the matter. Let other students listen and guess.
12. a) Work with worksheet D.
b) Choose a particular element and write why it is important, where we can encounter it and how it is used. Write 200-250 words.
Properties of elements, compounds and mixtures
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
1. a) Answer the question.
What types of properties of matter do you know?
b) Group the words and phrases into the correct column A or B.
Color, shape, reactivity with other chemicals, hardness, types of chemical bonds, texture, toxicity, luster, solubility, boiling point, flammability, melting point, density, magnetism, mass, volume, length, chemical stability
A. Physical properties B. Chemical properties
2. a) Complete the table with the words.
Water, oxygen, silver, white, solid, liquid
Table 1. Physical properties of common substances Substance Color State at
Melting point (ºC)
Boiling point (ºC)
1)_______ colorless Gas -218 -183 0.0014
Mercury 3)_____ Liquid -39 357 13.5
2)_______ colorless 5)______ 0 100 1.00 Sucrose white 6)______ 185 Decomposes 1.59 Sodium
4)______ Solid 801 1413 2.17
b) Describe your partner the physical properties of common substances using the information from the Table 1. Tell your partner about physical properties of other substances.
3. Complete the gaps with the words element(s) or compound(s).
1. Water is converted into two simpler substances, hydrogen and oxygen;
furthermore, hydrogen and oxygen are always present in the same ratio by mass, 11.1% to 88.9%. These observations allow us to identify water as a/an ____________.
2. A/an ____________ is a substance that can be decomposed by chemical means into simpler substances.
3. Neither of the two gases obtained by the electrolysis of water − hydrogen and oxygen − can be further decomposed, so we know that they are ____________.
4. Pure calcium carbonate (a white solid present in limestone and seashells) can be broken down by heating to give another white solid and a gas in the mass ratio 56.0:44.0. This observation tells us that calcium carbonate is a/an ____________.
4. a) Answer the questions:
1. What do the abbreviation IUPACstand for?
2. How do we represent the elements?
3. Who names them?
b) Read the text and check your answers.
We use a set of symbols to represent the elements. These symbols can be written more quickly than names, and they occupy less space. The symbols for the first 109 elements consist of either a capital letter or a capital letter and a lowercase letter, such as C (carbon) or Ca (calcium).
In the past, the discoverers of elements claimed the right to name them, although the question of who had actually discovered the elements first was sometimes disputed. In modern times, each new element is given a temporary name and a three-letter symbol based on a numerical system. This designation is used until the question of the right to name the newly discovered element is resolved.
Decisions resolving the names of elements 104 through 112 have been announced by the Chemistry International Union of Pure and Applied (IUPAC), an international organization that represents chemical societies from 40 countries.
IUPAC makes recommendations regarding many matters of convention and terminology in chemistry. These recommendations carry no legal force, but they are normally viewed as authoritative throughout the world.
LISTENING AND VOCABULARY
5. a) Write the name of the element for each symbol.
b) Listen to the song The Periodic table of elements https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-I7l8TgtuLQ and check your answers
Ag silver F Ni
Al Fe O
Au H P
B [ ][ ] He Pb
Ba Hg Pt
Bi I S
Br K Sb
C Kr Si
Ca Li Sn
Cd Mg Sr
Cl Mn Ti
Co N U
Cr Na W
Cu Ne Zn
c) Read the chorus. Listen one more time and sing the song.
This is the Periodic Table Noble gas is stable
Halogens and Alkali react aggressively Each period will see new outer shells While electrons are added moving to the right 6. a) Answer the questions of the quiz:
1) Takes its name from the Latin iris, meaning “rainbow?”
2) Are named after the planets?
3) Include “sun”, “earth”, “moon”?
4) Are derived from the ores potash and soda.
5) Comes from Prometheus, who stole fire from heaven, Scandinavian goddess Vanadis, Titans, the first sons of the earth, Tantalos, father of the Greek goddess Niobe, and Thor, Scandinavian god of war?
6) Are “Geographical elements” shown on the map: the Latin names for Russia, France, Paris, and Germany?
7) Are honoring important scientists?
8) Is named in honor of the Dubna laboratory in the former Soviet Union, where important contributions to the creation of heavy elements have originated?
b) Do you know the origin of some other elements? Where do the names of the elements usually come from?
7. 7 Listen and complete the gaps 1-5.
■ All of the materials in the universe can be chemically broken down into about _______1 different elements.
■ _______2 elements account for about _______3 of earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
■ In the human body, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are the most _______4 elements.
■ Each element has a name and a symbol.
• The symbol usually consists of the first one or two letters of the element’s name.
• Sometimes the symbol is taken from the element’s original _______5 name.
WRITING AND VOCABULARY
8. Use the dictionary to write the definitions.
Electron Nuclear atom Nucleus Proton Neutron Isotopes
Atomic number Mass number
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
9. Answer the question:
If you discovered a new element, how would you name it and why?
10. a) Student A. Read out the facts a-h on your own, explain the meaning of new words to other students. Decide on the best order to read out the facts about gold starting from the least known.
Other students: Guess the name of a substance. Use modals MUST, MIGHT, COULD, CAN’T for deduction.
a) The biggest nugget that has ever been found weighed approximately 90 kilograms and was unearthed in Australia
to unearth – to get out of the earth
b) The word derives from the Old English word Gelo meaning yellow.
to derive – to come from something
c) There are more than 400 references to it in the Bible
d) The Greeks thought that it was a dense combination of water and sunlight.
e) Out of one ounce of this substance (app. 31 gram) one can make a wire almost 100 kilometer long.
wire – a piece of thin metal
f) In 2008 China overtook South Africa as the world's largest producer of the substance
to overtake – to develop or increase more quickly
g) In ancient Egypt, it was considered the skin or flesh of the gods, particularly the Egyptian sun god Ra.
h) When pure it is so soft that it can be moulded with the hands.
Mould – /məʊld/ – to make a soft substance a particular shape
b) Answer the question: Which fact about gold is the most surprising to you?
READING AND VOCABULARY
11. a) Answer the questions:
1. What is a Gold Rush? Why did it happen? Where and When?
2. Why is gold so expensive?
3. Why do people like wearing it?
b) Read and get more information about gold.
During the California gold rush, miners relied on gold’s characteristic density (19 g/cm3) to separate valuable gold-containing flakes from riverbed sand. In some cases, a single intensive property is unique enough for identification.
Another intensive property of gold is its distinctive appearance.
Unfortunately, miners often learned that identification of gold based on appearance alone was misleading.
The Picture below shows a nugget of the relatively worthless mineral pyrite, often called “fool’s gold,” which looks very similar to actual gold nuggets. Such errors in identification based on the intensive property of appearance fooled many miners into falsely thinking they had become rich.
c) Answer the questions.
1. What do you know now about the physical properties of gold?
2. Can miners identify gold based on its appearance?
3. Is it possible to confuse gold with other substance?
d) Match the words in bold with the definitions
1 almost the same
2 likely to make someone believe something that is not true
3 the act of recognition
4 a small thin piece
5 independent of the amount property
6 worth a lot of money
7 a small rough piece of a valuable metal found in the earth
8 the way something looks
e) Answer the question.
How many karats does your or your partner’s ring/ear ring/chain have in your opinion?
f) Describe the Picture 1 below and read the text to get more information about karats.
If you wear a gold ring, you are wearing a mixture. Pure gold, is really quite soft. Because it bends easily, the pure form is not useful for jewellery. Only when we mix gold with other metals such as silver and copper does it become sturdy enough to make rings and chains.
Your ring might be 14-karat gold ̶ that is, it contains 36 atoms of gold for every 25 atoms of silver and for every 39 atoms of copper. Or your ring might be 18-karat gold ̶ that is, it contains 56 atoms of gold for every 20 atoms of silver and for every 24 atoms of copper. Mixtures of metals are called alloys.
Many gold alloys exist, containing varying amounts of gold, silver, and copper atoms. Alloys are mixtures ̶ their composition varies. Twenty-four-karat gold is an element. It contains only gold atoms.
As I mentioned, gold is a relatively soft metal, so high-karat stuff are often easily damaged. A 24 karat item is generally reserved for display or ceremonial use. In the stores, most gold items have a karat rating in the range 9 to 18. In the US, the minimum karat value for gold jewelry to be sold is 10, but in the UK 9 karat is more common. In addition, gold purity does not affect its weight! Different color of gold is mixed with different other metals. For example, gold mixes copper is called red karat gold.
g) Answer the question.
What are the most expensive presents men/women get?
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
12. a) Answer the question.
What is a third-most-consumed industrial metal in the world, after iron and aluminum?
b) In pairs group the properties of copper from Table 1 into physical and chemical properties (columns A and B).
Table 1. Properties of copper
Reddish brown, shiny
Forms green copper carbonate compound when in contact with moist air
• A deep blue solution appears when in contact with ammonia
• Density = 8.92 g/cm3
• Boiling point = 2570°C
Easily shaped into sheets (malleable) and drawn into wires (ductile)
• Good conductor of heat and electricity
• Forms new substances when combined with nitric acid and sulphuric acid
• Melting point = 1085°C
c) Answer the questions.
What is your favourite monument on the campus/in your country? Why?
What material is it made of?
How does the Statue of Liberty look like? What is it made of in your opinion?
What are the most widely used metals in the world?
What material are statues of Table 1 made of? What are their names?
Why is the statue number three green?
d) Write interesting in your opinion information about each statue in Table 1. Use Internet if necessary. Discuss with your partner.
Table 1. FAMOUS STATUES
1. 2. 3.
A. Physical properties
--- --- --- ---
B. Chemical properties
--- --- --- ---
LISTENING AND VOCABULARY
13. a) Write the definitions to the terms. Use dictionary if necessary.
Definition Physical properties
Chemical properties Physical change Chemical change
b) 8 Listen and check your answers.
14. Translate the sentences into your native language.
a) Alkenes and alkynes are nonpolar compounds with greater reactivity than alkanes but with other properties similar to those of the alkanes.
b) You will relate the structures of synthetic polymers to their properties.
c) How will the properties of this substance change when these groups react to form bonds called crosslinks between the chains?
d) An organic compound in which a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon is called an alcohol. Discuss the properties and uses of alcohols, ethers, and amines.
e) Ketones and aldehydes share many chemical and physical properties because their structures are so similar.
15. a) Answer the question:
What format (1, 2 or 3) is more appropriate for writing the experimental section of a lab report?
1. I mixed 20.09 g of cyclohexanol with 6 mL of 85 % H3PO4. 2. Mix 20.09 g of cyclohexanol with 6 mL of 85 % H3PO4.
3. Cyclohexanol (20.1 g, 0.201 mol) was mixed with H3PO4 (85 %, 6 mL).
b) Scan a sample laboratory report here
http://writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/labreport2.html and learn more about its structure.
16. Describe an experiment which proves a particular property.
Include introduction, materials and methods, description of the results and conclusion. Write 250-300 words.
Creating and interpreting chemical graphs
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
1. a) Answer the questions.
1. Do you agree with the saying: “A picture is worth a thousand words”?
2. How can scientists visualize the data they got?
3. What types of graphs do you know?
b) Match the Graphs 1-4 with the types of graphs a-d a) Bar chart
c) Circle graph / Pie chart d) Line chart
Graph 1 College of art and sciences total chemistry student enrolment in
Graph 2 Sources of chlorine in the stratosphere
Graph 3 Black cherry tree Graph 4 Density of aluminum
READING AND VOCABULARY
2. a) Answer the questions: 1. What advice do your professors giv e you to succeed in chemistry? 2. Which is the most effective for you?
b) Talk to your classmates about the things they consider to be the most important for succeeding in chemistry. Come up with some useful advice from your experience. Read the text and compare your ideas with the ideas from the text.
HOW TO SUCCEED IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CLASS Over on Master Organic Chemistry, James does a fine job of summarizing the advice professors most often give their students of organic chemistry. Based on careful reading of 25 syllabi* containing essays on how to succeed, overwhelmingly REGULAR PRACTICE of PROBLEM SOLVING rises to the top. Studying with partners is also high on the list. O-chem students should scrutinize the bar graph below (lifted from James’ site), read his full post, and think carefully about this.
General chemistry students will also benefit from considering this carefully.
* syllabus – a list of the topics that will be studied in a course
c) Answer the question.
Which piece of advice is the most / the least useful for you?
d) Discuss James’s results with your partner. Answer the question.
Do you agree or disagree with James?
3. Complete the gaps with the words:
Circle graph, Wedges, circle, bar graph, location, axis, line graph, dependent variable, best fit line
1. The ________1 is sometimes called a pie chart because it is divided into _______2 like a pie or pizza. It is useful for showing parts of a fixed whole. The parts are usually labelled as percentages with the _______3 as a whole representing 100%.
2. A _______4 often is used to show how a quantity varies with factors such as time, _______5, or temperature. In those cases, the quantity being measured appears on the vertical axis (y-axis). The independent variable appears on the horizontal _______6 (x-axis). The relative heights of the bars show how the quantity varies.
3. The points on a _______7 represent the intersection of data for two variables.
The independent variable is plotted on the x-axis. The _______8 is plotted on the y-axis. Remember that the independent variable is the variable that a scientist deliberately changes during an experiment. The line must be drawn so that about as many points fall above the line as fall below it. This line is called a _______9.
4. Look at Figure 1 and answer the questions 1-7.
1. What is the topic of the graph?
2. What is density?
3. What does the horizontal axis show?
4. What does the vertical axis show?
5. Which substance has the greatest density?
6. Which substance has a density of 11.4 g/cm3?
7. Which substance has the least
density? Fig. 1
5. a) Answer the questions.
1. Is it difficult to create a good graph? Why?
2. What advice would you give for good graphs?
b) Read and compare your ideas with the ones from the text.
Tips for Good Graphs
1. Give your graph a title. Something like "The dependence of (your dependent variable) on (your independent variable)."
2. The x-axis is your independent variable and the y-axis is your dependent variable.
3. LABEL your x-axis and y-axis. GIVE THE UNITS!!
4. When graphing data from lab, make line graphs because they tell you how one thing changes under the influence of some other variable.
5. NEVER connect the dots on your line graph.
Why? When you do an experiment, you always make mistakes. It's probably not a big mistake, and is frequently not something you have a lot of control over. However, when you do an experiment, many little things go wrong, and these little things add up.
As a result, experimental data never makes a nice straight line. Instead, it makes a bunch of dots which kind of wiggle around a graph.
To show that you're a clever young scientist, your best bet is to show that you KNOW your data is sometimes lousy. You do this by making a line (or curve) which seems to follow the data as well as possible, without actually connecting the dots.
Doing this shows the trend that the data suggests, without depending too much on the noise. As long as your line (or curve) does a pretty good job of following the data, you should be A-OK.
6. a) Look at the Graph 1 and answer the question.
What’s the purpose of the Graph 1.?
b) Read and answer the question:
What phrases does the author use to describe the graph?
Graph 1. Atmospheric CO2 measured at Mauna Loa (Keeling & Whorf, 2005) Describing the graph: The x-axis shows the variable of time in units of years, and the y-axis shows the range of the variable* of CO2 concentration in units of parts per million (ppm). The dots are individual measurements of concentrations – the numbers shown in Table 1. Thus, the graph is showing us the change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over time.
*variable: a factor or a condition that can be measured, observed, or changed
Describing the data and trends: The line connects consecutive*
measurements, making it easier to see both the short- and long-term trends within the data. On the graph, it is easy to see that the concentration of atmospheric CO2 steadily rose over time, from a low of about 315 ppm in 1958 to a current level of about 375 ppm. Within that long-term trend, it's also easy to see that there are short-term, annual cycles of about 5 ppm.
*consecutive – following one another in uninterrupted succession or order
Making interpretations: On the graph, scientists can derive additional information from the numerical data, such as how fast CO2 concentration is rising.
This rate can be determined by calculating the slope of the long-term trend in the numerical data, and seeing this rate on a graph makes it easily apparent. While a keen observer may have been able to pick out of the table the increase in CO2 concentrations over the five decades provided, it would be difficult for even a highly trained scientist to note the yearly cycling in atmospheric CO2 in the numerical data – a feature elegantly demonstrated in the sawtooth pattern of the line.
LANGUAGE IN USE
7. Answer the question.
Which words from the Table 1 are synonyms for go up / go down / quickly / greatly / step by step / without changes /change often / temperately?
TABLE 1. Useful vocabulary to describe your graph
ADVERBS VERBS USEFUL PHRASES TIME
EXPRESSIONS considerably increase The graph clearly shows / highlights Over the period moderately decrease The chart provides a comparison of /
The charts compare…
From 2010 to 2020
sharply drop Reach a peak Between 2013 and
2020 slowly grow Coal accounted for 25,000 million
In the following 5 years
gradually decline A half/ a third In 2015
rapidly rise Sectors which represent gently fall Remain stable/constant
steeply Level off
significantly On the graph LISTENING
8. 9 Listen and answer the questions:
1. Why is it important to distinguish between dynamic and static chart?
2. What vocabulary is good to use that shows change over time?
9. a) Choose a graph from APPENDIX B. Don’t show it to your partner.
b) Describe the graph to your partner using the words from the Table 1 in Ex. 7. Your partner should draw this graph in his/her copybook. Then check his/her graph showing the original one.
c) Change your roles and do it again.
10. Translate the sentences into your native language.
1. From the following incorrect formulas and formula names, identify the mistakes and design a flowchart to prevent the mistakes.
2. Learn about the latest advances in sickle cell disease research. Create a chart that shows major symptoms, their causes, and their treatment.
3. Triple point is the point on a phase diagram representing the temperature and pressure at which the three phases of a substance (solid, liquid, and gas) can coexist.
4. Realistic drawings of glassware and instrumentation found in the lab help students make real connections.
5. Rather than simply using the formulas to solve this problem, we will proceed by thinking it through. The situation is diagrammed in Fig. 1.10. First, we want to convert 98.68 F to the Celsius scale.
6. Fig. 3.5 illustrates a schematic diagram of a combustion device used to analyze organic compounds. Given that a certain amount of a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is combusted in this device, explain how the data relating to the mass of CO2 produced and the mass of H2O produced can be manipulated to determine the empirical formula.
11. a) Check 20 recent IELTS graph samples with answers here https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/59resource/
2997-recent-ielts-graph-with-answers. Answer the questions:
1. What is the structure of graph descriptions?
2. What phrases are used to compare and contrast?
3. What phrases are used to summarise the main information?
b) Find a chemical graph about your country.
c) Describe the graph in details. Include introduction where you say what the graph is about, name its title and source and add conclusion. Write 150- 200 words.
Chemistry as a Profession
SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY
1. а) Answer the questions.
1. Do you have any friends who work in the chemicals industry?
2. What did they tell you about their job?
b) Look at the diary and express your opinion about the chemists’ daily routine. Discuss in pairs.
c) Answer the questions.
1. What were Maria and James doing at different times of the day last Monday?
2. Whose job is easier in your opinion? Why do you think so?
Maria Lewis Chemist
James Smith Chemical Engineer
Start at 8.00 Pick up car from garage at 7.00 analyze organic and inorganic
compounds for determining physical and chemical properties at 9.00
Test new products at 9.00
diagnose malfunctions if any at 11.00 assist in producing efficient products at 11.00-13.00
Enjoy her coffee break 12.00 Try new ways in research of biochemical products by using biotechnology equipment at 15.00 conference with scientists and engineers
Meet senior officials and customers at 16.00
Interpret test results at 16.00 Improve the products by following advice of senior officials as well as
customers at 17.00 Prepare documentation at 17.00 Leave his office at 17.55
Go home at 18.00
d) Student A: You are Maria Lewis. Compare your job with James’. Tell James Smith about your difficulties / tasks / favourite activities at work.
Student B: You are James Smith. Compare your job with Maria’s. Tell Maria about your difficulties / tasks / favourite activities at work.
2. a) Answer the questions.
What are the positions of chemists in the chemical industry of Ukraine?
b) Compare your list with Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Jobs in the USA.
Positions found posted in the USA:
Postdoctoral Fellow; Synthesis Research Scientist;
Process Engineer; Sr. Process Engineer − Refining Technology Specialist;
Analytical Chemist; Senior Process Engineer;
Experimental Atomic Physicist; Assistant Professor;
Principal Engineer − Fermentation Process
Biopharma Lab Manager;
Associate* Scientist; Principal Statistician Model Validation;
Fixed Equipment Engineer; Chemical Engineering Assistant or Associate* Professor;
* Associate – having a rank below the highest level in an organization c) Answer the question.
What position would you choose and why?
d) Google for real responsibilities of the position chosen. Discuss in pairs.
READING AND VOCABULARY
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A COMPUTATIONAL CHEMIST 3. a) Can you answer
Zoe’s questions 1-4 in bold?
What other questions have you always been fascinated by? Write them on the paper.
Shuffle papers and try to answers your group mates’ questions.
b) Answer the question.
Why did you choose chemistry?
This is a real blog – this time with a day in the life of Zoe, a Computational Chemist working as an Investigator – Lecturer at the Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens.
I have always been fascinated by how the world around us works. Why is the sky blue1 ? Why are bubbles in a soft drink spherical2 ? How do we fall in love3 ? What are we really made of 4 ? And when I got the answer, I always felt the urgency to explain everything I learned to others… (though they are not always willing to hear it!). Everything around us, what we hear, see, smell, taste, and touch involves chemistry and chemicals. Thousands of chemical reactions happen in your body when you smell a beautiful flower in a summer spring morning. I was pleasantly surprised
c) Read the blog and compare your answers with Zoe’s.
when I learned in high-school that scientists called chemists could handle these reactions and even develop drugs that could save millions of lives worldwide.
Overwhelmed by chemists’ discoveries, I decided to study Chemistry. But soon enough I realized that although it is a really amazing science with its reactions, chemicals, funnels, pipettes, benches, and fume hoods, being a chemist makes a huge mess or at least I made one in the lab! Fortunately, I then realized that computers exist and they make things much cleaner. I discovered that today it is possible to build chemicals, study reactions, or even make drugs within a desktop computer by performing virtual experiments in a similar way as the typical chemists. This type of chemistry is called “computational chemistry”. So I became a computational chemist. Indeed, I literally live in a virtual reality world, where everything from chemical reactions to drugs, food, materials, cosmetics, electronics, and proteins is being modeled and simulated. And you won’t believe it, but, yes, I do have a job I like.
d) Label these pictures using the phrases from the blue part of the text
1) 2) 3)
e) Explain the phrases in bold
I am a group leader at the Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens. I specialize in “computer-aided drug design”, so the computer is my Virgil in the world of drugs (to paraphrase the original Nobel Committee tagline).
The main activity of my lab is the design of anti-cancer candidate drugs.
Employing software and high performance computing techniques, we predict the interactions of these candidate drugs with proteins that cause cancer. For decades, drug discovery was carried out using trial and error experimental techniques for screening large libraries of chemicals against a biological target (for example a protein), which is responsible for a disease. Recent advances in computer-aided drug design allow us to develop drugs specifically designed for a given protein, shortening the development cycle of new drugs. Understanding the detailed underlying molecular and atomic interactions involved in drug-protein interactions became central in guiding traditional experiments and therefore increasing the efficiency and decreasing cost in the drug discovery process.
In an ideal typical day of a computational chemist, there would be a lot of time for coffee and chatting since computers would do our job. But in reality there is
absolutely no time to waste. Why? Because every time your computer gives you some results, you come up with tens of exciting new ideas that you want to test immediately. Many times though, we do not follow a standard protocol, which means numerous trial and error attempts are performed to get the right set up for the virtual experiment. So, a typical day starts off with lots of positive thinking, but ends with angry keyboard banging after a day of debugging!
f) Write the nouns for adjectives in bold.
Larger “in silico experiments” (as we call our simulations) are carried out on big computer clusters. Such specialized clusters, which put together thousands of processors, represent a powerful tool for simulating complex processes such as the binding and unbinding of a drug or reactions of drugs with enzymes. These calculations may take weeks if not months to complete. Accessing these resources requires writing research proposals upraising the merits of a research project in order to justify using these expensive computational resources.
4. a) Answer the question.
What do you think, what will be your job responsibilities in the future?
b) Read the second part of the text and compare your answers with the responsibilities of a computational chemist.
c) Answer the questions.
1. What does Zoe do every week?
2. What activities from the list in italics are the most difficult in your opinion?
d) In pairs talk about your experience doing these activities.
Other weekly activities include:
keeping up to date with the literature,
mentoring and coaching my co-workers,
going to conferences, talks, and meetings,
communicating our research results,
teaching and of course dealing with bureaucracy.
It is extremely rewarding and exciting when our predictions become the brick and mortar of a new thrilling discovery. Indeed, we, as computational chemists are members of consortia of synthetic chemists, geneticists, pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, biochemists, and biologists, and work together in a concerted effort in the war against diseases. Our predictions inspire and support the actual experimental work being performed on designing drugs for cancer. My routine entails meeting daily with experimentalists who test our predictions in a wet lab to verify that a candidate drug has the desired activity on cancer cells.
Computational chemistry emerges as a key tool in the drug design process, however, this tool is not as simple as running a computer program; it requires chemical intuition and expertise in other disciplines such as physics, biology, and computer programming in order to conceive models capable to capture efficiently the complex reality of life. For this reason computational chemistry was wonderfully recognized for its contribution with the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Computational Chemists Martin Karplus of Harvard University and the University
of Strasbourg in France, Michael Levitt of Stanford University and Arieh Warshel of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. In the 1970s, these three researchers pioneered powerful models that are now being used to understand and predict chemical processes. Simply stated, “This year’s prize is about taking the chemical experiment to cyberspace.” as Staffan Normark of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences put it.
I often find that scientists are being looked upon as geeks spurting out of Doctor Who or The Big Bang Theory. The public can be afraid of things they cannot understand, but the truth is that science is not all that hard and, honestly, it is pretty cool. Although scientific positions are in general underpaid, I believe that the contribution of science to the quality of our lives and to people’s well-being is of central importance. Therefore, it is our duty to perform our work with social responsibility and communicate our findings and efforts in a way that can be perceived by the general public. Part of our work and efforts should focus on making our science accessible to everyone without any discrimination.
So a day in my lab life almost always includes science outreach – aimed at promoting public awareness and understanding of science and making informal contributions to science education. I maintain two blogs (“Life is Chemistry” and a Blogging Corner at the NGO “Science Communication”) and their respective pages on Facebook and Twitter. I write for the Chemistry in Cancer Research Group Newsletter of the American Association for Cancer Research, co-organize conferences with scientific themes for the general public such as the TEDMED Live Athens conference, and promote activities like scientific cafes and scientific talks to the general public.
e) Explain the words in bold.
f) Answer the questions.
1. Does Zoe like her job? Why do you think so?
2. How can you describe Zoe as a professional?
I could not resist finishing this blog post by quoting a woman that continues to inspire me by her lifelong dedication and contributions to science. Marie Skłodowska-Curie helped forever change how the world perceived women in science and set a shining example for the future generations of scientists. She showed that rigorous and determined investigation can lead to remarkable discoveries, which can have a direct and positive impact on people’s lives. As she said,
“Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.” − Marie Curie
g) Answer the questions.
1. Do you have any famous people who inspire you? Who and why?
2. Does Curie’s words inspire you? Do you agree or disagree with her quote?
3. Do you know any other quotes?